Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 25-06-2014)

13. Leptospiral agglutinins in captive and free ranging non-human primates in Sarawak, Malaysia - S. Thayaparan, I. D. Robertson and M. T. Abdullah
Veterinary World, 7(6): 428-431



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.428-431


S. Thayaparan: College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 6150 Murdoch, Western Australia;

I. D. Robertson: College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 6150 Murdoch, Western Australia;

M. T. Abdullah: Department of Zoology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia;

Received: 16-03-2014, Revised: 19-05-2014, Accepted: 24-05-2014, Published online: 25-06-2014


Corresponding author: S. Thayaparan,

1. Matthias, M., DÌaz, M., Campos, K., Calderon, M., Willig, M., Pacheco, V., Gotuzzo, E., Gilman, R., Vinetz, J. (2005) Diversity of bat-associated Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon inferred by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 73: 964.
PMid:16282313 PMCid:PMC2270400
2. Smythe, L., Field, H., Barnett, L., Smith, C., Dohnt, M., Symonds, M., Moore, M., Rolfe, P. (2002) Leptospiral antibodies in flying foxes in Australia. J Wildl Dis., 38: 182.
3. Tulsiani, S., Cobbold, R., Graham, G., Dohnt, M., Burns, M.A., Leung, L.K.P., Field, H., Smythe, L., Craig, S. (2011) The role of fruit bats in the transmission of pathogenic leptospires in Australia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol.,105: 71-84.
4. Russ, A., Jali, I., Bahaman, A., Tuen, A., Ismail, G. (2003) Seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis among the indigenous communities living in the periphery of Crocker Range Park Sabah, Malaysia. ARBEC, 1-5.
5. Priya, C., Hoogendijk, K., Berg, M., Rathinam, S., Ahmed, A., Muthukkaruppan, V., Hartskeerl, R. (2007) Field rats form a major infection source of leptospirosis in and around Madurai, India. J Postgrad Med., 53: 236-240.
6. Cox, T., Smythe, L., Leung, L. (2005) Flying foxes as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira species. J Wildl Dis., 41: 753.
7. Bengis, R., Leighton, F., Fischer, J., Artois, M., Morner, T., Tate, C. (2004) The role of wildlife in emerging and re- emerging zoonoses. Sci Tech. Rev., 23: 497-512.
8. Cantu, A., Ortega-S, J., Mosqueda, J., Garcia-Vazquez, Z., Henke, S., George, J. (2008) Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico. J Wildl Dis., 44: 1002.
9. Pavlin, B.I., Schloegel, L.M., Daszak, P. (2009) Risk of importing zoonotic diseases through wildlife trade, United States. Emerg Infect Dis., 15: 1721.
PMid:19891857 PMCid:PMC2857234
10. Kilbourn, A.M., Karesh, W.B., Wolfe, N.D., Bosi, E.J., Cook, R.A., Andau, M. (2003) Health evaluation of free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia. J Wildl Dis., 39: 73-83.
11. Arief, M.T. (2013) Changing Nature of Health Crisis from Infectious Diseases and Responses Over Three Decades in Malaysia. Borneo J Resour Sci Tech., 2: 1-11.
12. Harris, R.W. (2009) Tourism in Bario, Sarawak, Malaysia: A case study of pro-poor community-based tourism integrated into community development. Asia Pac J Tour Res., 14: 125- 135.
13. Yea, S. (2002) On and off the ethnic tourism map in Southeast Asia: The case of Iban longhouse tourism, Sarawak, Malaysia. Tour Geograph., 4: 173-194.
14. Ngui, S. (1991) National parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Sarawak. The state of nature conservation in Malaysia, ed. R. Kiew, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Nature Society, p190-198.
15. Faine, S. (1982) Guidelines for the control of leptospirosis. World Health Organization Geneva, Publication no. 67.
16. Thayaparan, S., Amran, F., Robertson, I.D., Abdullah, M.T. (2013) Preliminary results on noval strain of Leptospira,Lepto 175(Sarawak), in Sarawak Malaysia. In 8th Scientific Meeting of International Leptospirosis Society (Fukuoka, Japan), p87.
17. Famatiga, E. (1973) Leptospirosis in Philippine monkeys. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health., 4: 316.
18. Jalil, M.F.B. (2009) Comparative phylogeography of three primate species in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah, Malaysia. Unpublished Thesis Submitted to School of Biosciences, Cardiff Uuniversity, UK.
19. Yeager, C.P. (1991) Possible antipredator behavior associated with river crossings by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus). Am J Primatol., 24: 61-66.
20. Balamurugan, V., Gangadhar, N.L., Mohandoss, N., Thirumalesh, S.R.A., Dhar, M., Shome, R., Krishnamoorthy, P., Prabhudas, K., Rahman, H. (2013) Characterization of leptospira isolates from animals and humans: phylogenetic analysis identifies the prevalence of intermediate species in India. Springer Plus, 2: 1-9.
PMid:23961424 PMCid:PMC3736078
21. Slack, A.T., Kalambaheti, T., Symonds, M.L., Dohnt, M.F., Galloway, R.L., Steigerwalt, A.G., Chaicumpa, W., Bunyaraksyotin, G., Craig, S., Harrower, B.J. (2008) Leptospira wolffii sp. nov., isolated from a human with suspected leptospirosis in Thailand. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol., 58: 2305-2308.
22. Sejvar, J., Bancroft, E., Winthrop, K., Bettinger, J., Bajani, M., Bragg, S., Shutt, K., Kaiser, R., Marano, N., Popovic, T., (2003) Leptospirosis in "eco-challenge" athletes, Malaysian Borneo, 2000. Emerg Infec Dis., 9: 702.
PMid:12781010 PMCid:PMC3000150
23. Pereira, M.M., DA Silva, J.J.P., Pinto, M.A., DA Silva, M.F., Machado, M.P., Lenzi, H.L., Marchevsky, R.S. (2005) Experimental leptospirosis in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus): a new model for studies of severe pulmonary leptospirosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 72: 13-20.
24. Lilenbaum, W., Monteiro, R., Ristow, P., Fraguas, S., Cardoso, V., Fedullo, L. (2002) Leptospirosis antibodies in mammals from Rio de Janeiro Zoo, Brazil. Res Vet Sci., 73: 319-321.
25. Romero, M.H., Astudillo, M., Sánchez, J.A., González, L.M., Varela, N. (2011) Leptospiral antibodies in a Colombian zoo's Neotropical primates and workers. Revista de Salud Pública 13: 814-823.