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Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)

16. Xylazine-ketamine immobilization and propofol anesthesia for surgical excision of sebaceous adenoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca) - M. Bharathidasan, R. Thirumurugan, B. Justin William, R. S. George, A. Arunprasad, T. A. Kannan and S. Viramuthu

Veterinary World, 7(11): 986-990



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.986-990



M. Bharathidasan: Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

R. Thirumurugan: Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

B. Justin William: Centre for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

R. S. George: Department of Clinics, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

A. Arunprasad: Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

T. A. Kannan: Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;

S. Viramuthu: Centralized Clinical Laboratory, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India;


Received: 19-08-2014, Revised: 25-10-2014, Accepted: 05-11-2014, Published online: 27-11-2014


Corresponding author: B. Justin William, e-mail:

Aim: A captive male jaguar (Panthera onca) was anaesthetized for surgical excision of a tumor at the left belly fold under xylazine-ketamine immobilization and propofol anesthesia. The objective was to assess the dose of xylazine and ketamine required to abolish ear flick reflex for safe approach when the jaguar was under chemical immobilization and efficacy of propofol induced anesthesia.

Materials and Methods: A male jaguar (P. onca) aged 14 years and weighing approximately 90 kg was subjected to chemical immobilization using a combination of xylazine and ketamine using a blow pipe. The jaguar was approached after the absence of ear flick reflex and transported to zoo Operation Theater. Propofol was administered intravenously to induce and maintain anesthesia. The tumor was excised using thermocautery and subjected to histopathology.

Results: Ear flick reflex was stimulated at 5 and 10 min after immobilization and observed shaking of head and movement of fore limb following administration of xylazine and ketamine. Dose of xylazine and ketamine required for chemical immobilization, characterized by absence of ear flick reflex was 1.0 and 3.5 mg/kg body weight respectively, and was achieved in 13 min. The surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained for 11 min following administration of propofol at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight intravenously. The jaguar recovered in 41 min following surgery. The excised tumor was confirmed as sebaceous adenoma on histopathological examination. The animal recovered uneventfully, and no recurrence of the tumor was noticed in 3 months follow-up period.

Conclusion: The total dose xylazine and ketamine required for chemical immobilization with absence of ear flick reflex was 1.0 and 3.5 mg/kg body weight respectively. Further, administration of propofol intravenously, at a dose of 2 mg/kg maintained anesthesia for 11 min. Histopathological examination of the excised tumor at the belly fold was confirmed as sebaceous adenoma.

Keywords: ear flick reflex, jaguar, ketamine, Panthera onca, propofol, sebaceous adenoma, xylazine.

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