Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 18-10-2014)

14. Thermoregulatory and adaptive responses of adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during hyperthermia: Physiological, behavioral, and metabolic approach - Alok K. Wankar, Gyanendra Singh and Brijesh Yadav

Veterinary World, 7(10): 825-830



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.825-830



Alok K. Wankar: Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Khalsa College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Amritsar, Punjab, India;

Gyanendra Singh: Physiology and Climatology Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Brijesh Yadav: Division of Physiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India;


Received: 05-07-2014, Revised: 10-09-2014, Accepted: 16-09-2014, Published online: 18-10-2014


Corresponding author: Alok K. Wankar, e-mail:

Aim: The study was planned to evaluate the indigenous animal adaptive capabilities during optimum temperature versus heat stress (HS).

Materials and Methods: Four adult buffaloes were exposed at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C for 21 days at every treatment in environmentally controlled chamber and physio-biochemical variation and animal behavior was observed.

Results: The study revealed significantly increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, water intake, sodium, reactive oxygen metabolites, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase while, pulse rate and thyroid hormones decreased during thermal stress. Panting, restlessness, salivation, and sweating were higher during HS while, rumination and urination contrastingly lowered.

Conclusion: The results reflect the impact of hyperthermia both acute and chronic, on the animals forcing various physiobiochemical, endocrinal, and behavioral changes for acclimatization during a stressful period aimed at maintaining homeothermy.

Keywords: acclimatization, behavior, endocrinal, heat stress, panting, physio-biochemical.

1. Seguin, B. (2008). The consequences of global warming for agriculture and food production. In: Rowlinson, P., Steele, M. and Nefzaoui, A. editors. Proceedings International Conference "Livestock and Global Climate Change" Hammamet, Tunisia, 17-20 May. p9-11.
2. Moran, J.B. (1973) Heat tolerance of Brahman cross, buffalo, bauteng and shorthorn steers during exposure to sun and as a result of exercise. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 24: 775-782.
3. Gudev, D., Popova Ralcheva, S., Moneva, P., Aleksiev, P., Peeva, T.Z., Penchev, P. and Ilieva, I. (2007) Physiological indices in buffaloes exposed to sun. Arch. Zootec., (10): 127-132.
4. Marai, I.F.M. and Haeeb, A.A.M. (2010) Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress - A review. Livest. Sci., 127: 89-109.
5. West, J.W. (2003) Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci., 86: 2131-2144.
6. Ganaie, A.H., Shanker, G., Nazir A.B., Ghasura R.S, Mir, N.A., Wani, S.A. and Dudhatra, G.B. (2013) Biochemical and physiological changes during thermal stress in bovines. J. Vet. Sci. Technol., 4(1): 1-6.
7. NRC. (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
8. Madesh, M., Balasubramanian, K.A. (1998) Microtiter plate assay for superoxide dismutase using MTT reduction by superoxide. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 35: 184-188.
9. Brambilla, G., Fiori, M., Archetti, L.I. (2001) Evaluation of the oxidative stress in growing pigs by microplate assays. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 48: 33-38.
10. SPSS, Inc. (1997). SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) for Windows© (1993) Version 160 SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.
11. Korde, J.P., Singh, G., Varshney, V.P. and Shukla, D.C. (2007) Effects of long-term heat exposure on adaptive mechanism of blood acid-base in Buffalo calves. Asian. Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 13: 329-332.
12. Banerjee, D. and Ashutosh . (2011a) Effect of thermal exposure on diurnal rhythms of physiological parameters and feed water intake in Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers. Biol. Rhythm. Res., 42: 39-51.
13. Banerjee, D. and Ashutosh . (2011b) Circadian changes in physiological responses and blood ionized sodium and potassium concentrations under thermal exposure in Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers. Biol. Rhythm. Res., 42: 131-139.
14. Pereira, A.M.F., Baccari, F., Titto, E.A.L. and Afonso, J.A. (2008) Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in alentejana, mertolenga, Frisian and limousine cattle breeds. Int. J. Biometeorol., 52(3): 199-208.
15. Janzekovic, M., Mursec, B. and Janzekovic, I. (2006) Techniques of measuring heart rate in cattle. Teh. Vjesn., 13: 31-37.
16. Reece, O. (2005) Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals. 12th ed. Cornell University Press, US.
17. Singh, S.P. and Newton, W.M. (1978) Acclimation of young calves to high temperatures: Physiologic responses. Am. J. Vet. Res., 39(5): 795-7.
18. Beatty, D.T., Barnes, A., Taylor, E., Pethick, D., McCarthy, M. and Maloney, S.K. (2006) Physiological responses of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle to prolonged continuous heat and humidity. J. Anim. Sci., 84: 972-985.
19. Nessim, M.G. (2004) Heat-induced biological changes as heat tolerance indices related to growth performance in buffaloes. PhD Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Animal Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
20. Nardone, A., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Ranieri, M.S. and Bernabucci, U. (2010) Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livest. Sci., 130: 57-69.
21. Miaron, J.O.O. and Christopherson, R.J. (1992) Effect of prolonged thermal exposure on heat production, reticular motility, rumen-fluid and particulate passage-rate constants, and apparent digestibility in steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 72: 809-819.
22. Aboul-Naga, A.I. (1983) The role of heat induced physiological changes of minerals metabolism in the heat stress syndrome in cattle. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.
23. Hooda, O.K. and Singh, G. (2009) Changes in serum electrolytes, mineralsand physiological responses in buffalo heifers exposed to high temperature in a psychrometric chamber. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 26(4): 327-332.
24. Singh, P., Dixit, V.P., Singh, B. and Gerogie, G.C. (2001) Plasma aldosterone and major circulatory and urinary electrolytes in buffalo calves as affected by peak summer and winter stress. Int. J. Anim. Sci., 16(1): 161-166.
25. Scharf, B., Carroll, J.A., Riley, D.G., Chase, C.C., Coleman, S.W. Jr., Keisler, D.H., Weaber, R.L. and Spiers D.E. (2010) Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat-tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat-susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge. J. Anim. Sci., 88: 2321-2336.
26. Srikandakumar, A., Johnson, E.H. and Mahgoub, O. (2003) Effect of heat stress on respiratory rate, rectal temperature and blood chemistry in Omani and Australian Merino sheep. Small Rumin. Res., 49(2): 193-198.
27. Chaiyabutr, N., Chanpongsang, S. and Suadsong, S. (2008) Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment. Int. J. Biometeorol., 52: 575-585.
28. Katschinski, D.M., Boos, K., Schindler, S.G. and Fandrey, J. (2000) Pivotal role of reactive oxygen species as intracellular mediators of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem., 275: 21094-21098.
29. Bernabucci, U., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N. and Nardone, A. (2002) Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 2173-2179.
30. Kumaraguruparan, R., Balachandran, C., Murali, M.B. and Nagini, S. (2005) Altered oxidant - Antioxidant profile in canine mammary tumors. Vet. Res. Commun., 29: 287-296.
31. Kumar, A., Singh, G., Kumar, B.V.S. and Meur, S.K. (2011) Modulation of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte by dietary supplementation during heat stress in buffaloes. Livest. Sci., 138: 299-303.
32. Kumar, A., Kumar, P. and Singh, S.V. (2007) Oxidative stress markers profile in erythrocytes of natural and heat exposed cattle and buffalos. Indian J. Dairy. Sci., 60: 114-118.
33. Cerutti, P.A. (1985) Pro-oxidant status and tumor promotion. Science, 227: 375-377.
34. Kaneco, J.J., Harvey, J.W. and Bruss, M.L. (2008) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Academic Press, Elsevier, London.
35. Boots, L.R., Crist, W.L., Davis, D.R., Bruin, E.W. and Ludwick, I.M. (1969) Effect of age, body weight, stage of gestation and sex on plasma glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity in immature cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 52: 211-216.
36. Marai, I.F.M., Habeeb, A.A.M., Daader, A.H. and Yousef, H.M. (1997) Effects of diet supplementation and body cooling on Friesian calves reared in high ambient temperature in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 29(4): 201-208.
37. Calamari, L., Petrera, F., Abeni, F. and Bertin, G. (2011) Metabolic and hematological profiles in heat stressed lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with different selenium sources and doses. Livest. Sci., 142: 128-137.
38. Nonaka, I., Takusari, N., Tajima, K., Suzuki, T., Higuchi, K. and Kurihara, M. (2008) Effects of high environmental temperatures on physiological and nutritional status of prepubertal Holstein heifers. Livest. Sci., 113: 14-23.
39. Rasooli, A., Nouri, M., Khadjeh, G.H. and Rasekh, A. (2004) The influence of seasonal variations on thyroid activity and some biochemical parameters of cattle. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 5(2): 1383-1391.
40. Dantzerr, R. and Mormede, P. (1983) Stress in farm animals: A need for reevaluation. J. Anim. Sci., 51(1): 16-18.
41. Yousef, J.L.M., Habeeb A.A. and EL-Kousey, H. (1997) Body weight gain and some physiological changes in Friesian calves protected with wood or reinforced concrete sheds during hot summer season of Egypt. Egypt. J. Anim. Prod., 34: 89-101.
42. Hammond, A.C., Chase, C.C., Bowers, E.J. Jr., Olson, T.A. and Randel R.D. (1998) Heat tolerance in Tuli-, Senepol-, and Brahman-sired F1 Angus heifers in Florida. J. Anim. Sci.,76(6): 1568-1577.
43. Beraidinell, L.J.G., Gogfrey, R.W., Adair, R., Lunstra, D.D., Byerely, D.J., Gardenas, H. and Randel, R.D. (1992) Cortisol and prolactin concentrations during different seasond in relocated Brahma and Hereford bulls. Theriogenology, 37(3): 641-654.
44. Colleir, R.J., Breede, D.K., Thatcher, W.W., Israe, L.A. and Wilcox, C.J. (1982) Influence of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production. J. Dairy Sci., 65: 2213-2227.