Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 09-10-2014)

7. Hematology and serum biochemistry of captive gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in India - Shahnaz Amin and Avadh Bihari Shrivastav

Veterinary World, 7(10): 794-798



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.794-798



Shahnaz Amin: Centre for Wildlife Forensics and Health, Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, South Civil Lines, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India;

Avadh Bihari Shrivastav: Centre for Wildlife Forensics and Health, Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, South Civil Lines, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India;


Received: 31-05-2014, Revised: 02-09-2014, Accepted: 07-09-2014, Published online: 09-10-2014


Corresponding author: Shahnaz Amin, e-mail:

Aim: To study the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of the critically endangered gharial (Gavialis gangeticus).

Materials and Methods: Blood samples for hemato-biochemical analyses were collected from the ventral median coccygeal vein of six juvenile and six sub adult gharials of Dewari Gharial Rearing Centre of National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. Hematological examination was performed manually. Differential leukocyte count was performed on the blood smears stained with Giemsa’s stain. The analysis of serum was conducted by eppendorf ECOM-F 6124 semi auto biochemical analyzer using standard ERBA biochemical reagent kits.

Results: Peripheral blood cells of gharial showed erythrocytes with an oval outline and centrally located prominent round to oval nucleus. Erythrocyte count in sub adult gharials was significantly greater than juveniles. Whereas erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume and erythrocyte size in juveniles was significantly larger than sub adults. The average most abundant leukocyte type in gharial was lymphocytes (53%), followed by heterophils (27%), eosinophils (10%), monocytes (7%) and basophils (3%). Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides and albumin concentrations in sub adult gharials were significantly higher than juveniles. No significant differences were determined in other hemato-biochemical parameters between juvenile and sub adult gharials under study.

Conclusion: A preliminary database on hematology and blood biochemistry of gharial was established. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations, especially in relation to determining potential effects associated with factors such as pollution and infectious diseases.

Keywords: crocodilians, gharial, Gavialis gangeticus, hematobiochemistry, National Chambal Sanctuary.

1. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. (2010) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available from: http//
2. Choudhury, B.C., Singh, L.A.K., Rao, R.J., Basu, D., Sharma, R.K., Hussain, S.A., Andrews, H.V., Whitaker, N., Whitaker, R., Lenin, J., Maskey, T., Cadi, A., Rashid, S.M.A., Choudhury, A.A., Dahal, B., Win, K.K.U., Thorbjarnarson, J., and Ross, J.P. (2007) Gavialis gangeticus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Available from: http//
3. Stein, G. (1996) Hematologic and blood chemistry values in reptiles. In: Mader D.R. editor. Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd ed. WB. Saunders Company Ltd., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. p473-483.
4. Natt, M.P. and Herrick, C.A. (1952) A new blood diluent for counting the erythrocytes and leucocytes of chicken. Poult. Sci., 31: 735-738.
5. Feldman, B.F., Zinkl, J.G. and Jain, N.C. (2000) Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. 5th ed. Lea and Fibiger, Philadelphia, USA.
6. Jain, N.C. (1986) Hematologic techniques. In: Jain, N.C. editor. Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. p36-66.
7. Arykan, H.B., Mehmet, G., Yildiz, Z., Ilgaz, C. and Kumluta, Y. (2009) Morphology of peripheral blood cells from some lacertid lizards from Turkey. Russ. J. Herpetol., 16(2): 101-106.
8. Snedecor, C.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Bombay. p593.
9. Duguy R. (1970) Numbers of blood cells and their variation. In: Gans, C. and Parsons, T.S. editors. Biology of Reptilia. Acad Press, New York. p93-109.
10. Stacy, B.A. and Whitaker, N. (2000) Hematology and blood biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris). American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. J. Zoo. Wildl. Med., 31(3): 339-347.
11. Lovely, C.J., Pittman, J.M. and Leslie, A.J. (2007) Normal hematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 78(3): 137-144.
12. Saint Girons, M.C. and Saint Girons, H. (1969) Contribution à la morphologie comparée des érythrocytes chez les reptiles. Br. J. Herpetol., 4: 67-82.
13. Mitchell, M.A. (2001) Reptile Clinical Pathology. In: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. Orlando Florida, USA. p808-809.
14. Padilla, S.E., Weber, M. and Jacobson, E.R. (2011) Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference intervals for Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in the northern wetlands of Campeche, Mexico. J. Wildl. Dis., 47(3): 511-522.
15. Millan, J.M., Janmaat, A., Richardson, K.C., Chambers, L.K. and Fomiatti, K.R. (1997) Reference ranges for biochemical and hematological values in farmed saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) yearlings. Aust. Vet. J., 75: 814-817.