Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


Research (Published online: 22-04-2015)

18. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers - Gurdeep Singh, Yashpal Thakur, Amitoz Kour, Varun Sankhyan and Sanjeet Katoch

Veterinary World, 8(4): 527-531

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.527-531

 

 

Gurdeep Singh: Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, College of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences, Holta, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India; gurdeepsingh443@yahoo.com

Yashpal Thakur: Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, College of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences, Holta, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India; ypthakur@rediffmail.com

Amitoz Kour: Department of Veterinary Microbiology, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Holta, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India; amitozkaur78@gmail.com

Varun Sankhyan: Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, College of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences, Holta, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India; sankhyan@gmail.com

Sanjeet Katoch: Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, College of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences, Holta, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India; Skatoch@gmail.com

 

Received: 02-12-2014, Revised: 19-03-2015, Accepted: 26-03-2015, Published online: 22-04-2015

 

Corresponding author: Gurdeep Singh, e-mail: gurdeepsingh443@yahoo.com


Citation: Singh G, Thakur Y, Kour A, Sankhyan V, Katoch S (2015) Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers, Veterinary World 8(4); 527-531.



Aim: In the present study, genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed, a native to north temperate western Himalayan region of India, was carried out for the purpose of breed characterization and assessing existing intra-population genetic diversity.

Materials and Methods: Totally, 75 blood samples procured at random from genetically unrelated animals of two sexes and different age groups and true to breed type were collected from different locations in the breeding tract of these goats in Himachal Pradesh, of which only 51 samples with desired quantity and quality were subjected to further processing for DNA isolation. The multi-locus genotype data were generated on 51 Gaddi goats sampled across different regions of the breeding tract in Himachal Pradesh using 15 FAO recommended goat specific microsatellite markers, which gave amplification and observed and effective number of alleles, gene frequency, observed and expected heterozygosity were estimated through PopGene software (1.3.1).

Results: A total of 135 distinct alleles were observed with mean observed and effective number of alleles as 9.00000.82 and 6.58740.56 respectively across all 15 studied loci. The maximum (15) alleles were contributed by loci DRBP1 and P19/DYA and the least (5) by SRCRSP5. The mean heterozygosity was observed to be 0.83470.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5) to 0.9156 (P19-DYA) across all loci. The mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities across all loci were 0.74840.02 and 0.84310.01 respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.7148 (SRCPS5) to 0.909 (P19-DYA) with mean PIC of 0.81050.01 in the present study. The average heterozygosity was observed to be 0.83470.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5) to 0.9156 P19 (DYA) across all loci.

Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in Gaddi goats. This high level of polymorphism can be utilized to plan future association studies to exploit the uniqueness and adaptability of indigenous Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas. Most studied microsatellite markers had desired neutrality, thus proving to be good candidates for genetic characterization and diversity analysis in Gaddi breed of goats also.

Keywords: characterization, Gaddi goat, microsatellite markers, Western Himalayas.



1. FAOSTAT. (2009) http://www.faostat3.fao.org. Last accessed on 18-11-2014.
 
2. Acharaya, R.M. (1982) Sheep and goat breeds of India. Animal Production And Health Paper, Paper No 30. FAO, Rome.
 
3. Bhatia, S. and Shankar, V. (1991) Cytogenetic analysis of gaddi goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 61: 646-648.
 
4. Gupta, K., Kaila, O.P. and Marwaha, C.L. (2005) Growth patterns of gaddi goats in cold arid zone of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Small Rumin., 11(2): 187-190.
 
5. Dixit, S.P., Verma, N.K., Aggarwal, R.A.K., Vyas, M.K., Jyoti, R. and Sharma, A. (2012) Genetic diversity and relationship among Indian goat breeds based on microsatellite markers. Small Rumin. Res., 105(1-3): 38-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.11.026
 
6. Baumung, R., Simianer, H. and Hoffman, I. (2004) Genetic diversity studies in farm animals – A survey. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 121: 361-373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0388.2004.00479.x
 
7. Maudet, C., Luikart, G. and Taberlet, P. (2002) Genetic diversity and assignment tests among seven French cattle breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis. J. Anim. Sci., 80(4): 942-950.
PMid:12002331
 
8. Baudouin, L., Piry, S. and Cornuet, J.M. (2004) Analytical bayesian approach for assigning individuals to populations. J. Hered., 95(3): 217-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esh035
PMid:15220388
 
9. Boyce, W.M., Hedrick, P.W., Muggli-Cockett, N.E., Kalinowski, S., Penedo, M.C. and Ramey, R.R. (1996) Genetic variation of major histocompatibilty complex and microsatellite loci: A comparison in Bighorn sheep. Genetics., 145(2): 421-433.
 
10. Sharma, A., Dutt, G., Jayakumar, S., Saroha, V., Verma, N.K. and Dixit, S.P. (2013) Genetic structuring of nine Indian domestic goat breeds based on SNPs identified in IGF-1 gene. Anim. Biotechnol., 24(2): 148-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2013.763815
PMid:23534960
 
11. Litt, M. and Lutty, J.A. (1989). A hypervariable microsatellite revealed by in vitro amplification of a dinucleotide repeats within the cardiac muscle actin gene. Am. J. Human Genet., 44(3): 397-401.
PMid:2563634 PMCid:PMC1715430
 
12. Scribner, K.T., Arntzen, J.W. and Burke, T. (1994) Comparative analysis of intra and interpopulation genetic diversity in buffalo, using allozyme, single-locus microsatellite, minisatellite, and multilocus minisatellite data. Mol. Biol. Evol., 11: 737-748.
PMid:7968487
 
13. Machugh, D.E, Loftus, R.T., Bradley, D.G., Sharp, P.M. and Cunningham, P. (1994) Microsatellite DNA variation within and among European cattle breeds. Proc. Biol. Sci., 256(1345): 25-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1994.0044
PMid:8008754
 
14. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd.ed. Cold Spring Harbour Cold Spring Laboratory Press, NY.
 
15. Soranzo, N., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (1999) An example of microsatellite length variation in the mitochondrial genome of conifers. Genome., 42(158-161): 0831-2796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/g98-111
 
16. Kim, K.S., Yeo, J.S., Lee, J.W., Kim, J.W. and Choi, C.B. (2002) Genetic diversity of goats from Korea and China using microsatellite analysis. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15(4): 461-465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.461
 
17. Ouafi, A.T., Babilliot, J.M., Leroux, C. and Martin, P. (2002) Genetic diversity of the two main moroccan goat breeds: phylogenetic relationships with four breeds reared in France. Small Rumin. Res., 45(3): 225-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00111-6
 
18. Li, M.H., Li, K. and Zhao, S.H. (2004) Diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds: A conservation perspective. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17(5): 726-732.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.726
 
19. Dixit, S.P., Verma, N.K., Ahlawat, S.P.S. and Aggarwal, R.A.K. (2008) Molecular genetic characterization of Kutchi breed of goat. Curr. Sci., 95(7): 946-952.
 
20. Rout, P.K., Joshi, M.B., Mandal, A., Laloe, D., Singh, L. and Thangaraj, K. (2008) Microsatellite based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats. BMC Genet., 9: 11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-9-11
PMid:18226239 PMCid:PMC2268706
 
21. Ramamoorthi, J., Thilagam, K., Sivaselvam, S.N. and Karthickeyan, S.M. (2009) Genetic characterization of barbari goats using microsatellite markers. J. Vet. Sci., 10(1): 73-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2009.10.1.73
PMCid:PMC2801097
 
22. Rout, P.K, Thangraj, K, Mandal, A. and Roy, R. (2012) Genetic variation and population structure in Jamunapari goats using microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA, and milk protein genes. The Sci. World J., 2012: 618909.
 
23. Dixit, S.P., Verma, N.K., Aggarwal, R.A.K., Vyas, M.K., Rana, J., Sharma, A. and Chander. R. (2011) Genetic variability and bottleneck analyses of kanniadu goat breed based on microsatellite markers. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 81(1): 43-48.
 
24. Kemp, S.J. and Hishida, O. (1995) A panel of polymorphic bovine, ovine and caprine microsatellite markers. Anim. Genet., 26(5): 299-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2052.1995.tb02663.x
 
25. Botstein, D., White, R.L., Skolnick, M. and Davis, R.W. (1980) Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using RFLP. Am. J. Human Genet., 32(3): 324-331.
 
26. Ganai, N.A. and Yadava, B.R. (2001) Genetic variation within and among three Indian goat breeds using heterologous microsatellite markers. Anim. Biotechnol., 12(2): 121-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ABIO-100108338
PMid:11808627
 
27. Yang, L., Zhao, S.H., Li, K., Peng, Z.Z. and Montgomery, G.W. (1999) Determination of genetic relationships among five indigenous Chinese goat breeds with six microsatellites markers. Anim. Genet., 30(6): 452-455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.1999.00548.x
 
28. Mishra P, Ali, S.A, Kuralkar, V.S, Dixit, S.P, Aggarwal, K.A.R., Dangi, S.P. and Verma, K.N. (2013) Analysis of genetic diversity in berari goat population of Maharashtra state. Iranian J. Appl. Anim. Sci., 3(3): 553-559.
 
29. Verma, N.K., Dixit, S.P., Aggarwal, R.A.K., Dangi, P.S. and Joshi, B.K. (2010) Phenotypic and genetic characterization of sangamneri goat breed. The Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80: 1109-1114.