Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


Research (Published online: 29-12-2015)

13. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes - Sandeep Reddy Seerapu, Ananda Rao Kancharana, Venkata Seshaiah Chappidi and Eswara Rao Bandi

Veterinary World, 8(12): 1444-1452

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1444-1452

 

Sandeep Reddy Seerapu: Department of Livestock Production Management, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkatesawara Veterinary University, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India; sandeep.vety@gmail.com

Ananda Rao Kancharana: Buffalo Research Station VR Gudem, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India; alekh69@yahoo.com

Venkata Seshaiah Chappidi: Department of Livestock Production Management, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkatesawara Veterinary University, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India; seshuchappidi@yahoo.com

Eswara Rao Bandi: Department of Livestock Production Management, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkatesawara Veterinary

University, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India; beraolpt@gmail.com

 

Received: 03-08-2015, Revised: 07-11-2015, Accepted: 19-11-2015, Published online: 29-12-2015

 

Corresponding author: Sandeep Reddy Seerapu, e-mail: sandeep.vety@gmail.com


Citation: Seerapu SR, Kancharana AR, Chappidi VS, Bandi ER (2015) Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes, Veterinary World 8(12): 1444-1452.



Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI), milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control) was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), total solids (TS), specific gravity.

Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001) decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers), GroupIII (fans), and GroupIV (foggers and fans) compared to GroupI (control). Significant (p<0.001) decrease in average rectal temperature (F), respiration rate (breaths/min) and pulse rate (beats/min) values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk yield (kg/day) was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I.

Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo houses increased feed intake in buffaloes resulting increased milk production, fat and SNF yield which was due to decreased heat stress in buffaloes.

Keywords: microlimate, milk composition, milk yield, physiological parameters, temperature-humidity index.



1. FAOSTAT. (2007) Available from:http://www.faostat.fao.org. Accessed on 04-03-2014
 
2. Kadzere, C.T., Murphy, M.R., Silanikove, N. and Maltz, E. (2002) Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci., 77: 59-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00330-X
 
3. West, J.W. (2003) Effect of heat stress on production in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 2131-2144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73803-X
 
4. Hansen, P.J. (2007) Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embrionic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology, 68: S242-S249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04.008
PMid:17482669
 
5. Marai, I.F.M. and Haeeb, A.A.M. (2010) Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress - A review. Livest. Sci., 127: 89-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.08.001
 
6. Akyuz, A., Boyaci, S. and Cayli, A. (2010) Determination of critical period for dairy cows using temperature humidity index. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9(13), 1824-1827.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2010.1824.1827
 
7. Shearer, J.K., Bray, R.A. and Bucklin, R.A. (1999) The management of heat stress in dairy cattle: What we have learned in Florida. Proceedings of the Feed and Nutritional Management Cow College, Virginia Tech. p1-13.
 
8. Shearer, J.K., Bray, D.R., Bucklin, R.A. and Beede, D.K. (1991) Environmental modifications to reduce heat stress in dairy cattle. Agric. Pract., 12: 7-18.
 
9. Aggarwal, A. and Singh, M. (2007) Economics of using mist and fan system during summer and houses during winter for alleviating environmental stress in dairy animals. Indian J. Agric. Econ., 62: 272-279.
 
10. LPHSI. (1990) Livestock and Poultry Heat Stress Indices Agriculture Engineering Technology Guide. Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA. p29634.
 
11. I.S.I. (1961) Indian Standards Methods for Dairy Industry Part II Chemical Analysis of Milk 1. S: 1479 (Part II) 1961. New Delhi-I: Indian Standards Institution.
 
12. Aggarwal, A. (2004) Effect of environment on hormones, blood metabolites, milk production and composition under two sets of management in cows and buffaloes. PhD Thesis Submitted to National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India.
 
13. Chandra, B., Singh, S.V., Hooda, O.K., Upadhyay, R.C. and Beenam, V.M. (2012) Influence of temperature variability on physiological, hematological and biochemical profile of growing and adult Sahiwal cattle. J. Environ. Res. Dev., 7(2A): 986-994.
 
14. Frazzi, E., Calamari, L., Calegari, F. and Stefanini, L. (2000) Behavior of dairy cows with different barn cooling systems. Trans. ASAE., 43: 387-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.2716
 
15. Noniponimo, K. (2004) Identification and understanding of factors affecting performance of dairy cattle in heat stress conditions, Master of Science Thesis Submitted to Graduate Division of University of Hawaii at MANOA, USA.
 
16. Upadhyay, R.C., Ashutosh, R.R., Singh, S.V., Mohanty, T.K. and Gohain, M. (2012) Impact of climate change on reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 22: 234-236.
 
17. Boonsanit, D., Chanpongsang, S. and Chaiyabutr, N. (2010) Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) and cooling with misters and fans on renal function in relation to regulation of body fluids in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 23: 355-365.
 
18. Chanpongsang, S., Choktananukul, V., Jamikorn, U., Chaiyabutr, N. and Suadsong, S. (2010) Effects of evaporative cooling system on productive and reproductive performance and some physiological parameters of crossbred Holstein Friesian cattle in tropical conditions. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. p105-110.
 
19. Siriwat, S., Thuchadaporn, C. and Junpen, S. (2013) Effect of improved cooling on daily rhythmicity of body temperature in cross-bred Holstein dairy cows under tropical conditions. Thailand J. Vet. Med., 43(3): 367-373.
 
20. Ambulkar, D.R., Nikam, S.D., Barmase, B.S., Ali, S.Z. and Jirapure, S.G. (2011) Effect of a high-pressure fogger system on body comfort and milk yield in Murrah buffaloes during the summer. Buffalo Bull., 30(2): 130-138.
 
21. Aggarwal, A. and Singh, M. (2008) Skin and rectal temperature changes in lactating buffaloes provided with showers and wallowing during hot-dry season. Tropical Animal Health Prod., 40: 223-228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9084-3
PMid:18484125
 
22. Das, K.S., Singh, J.K., Singh, G., Upadhyay, R.C., Malik, R. and Oberoi, P.S. (2014) Heat stress alleviation in lactating buffaloes: Effect on physiological response, metabolic hormone, milk production and composition. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84 (3): 275-280.
 
23. Rahangdale, P.B., Ambulkar, D.R. and Somnathe, R.D. (2011) Influence of summer managemental practices on physiological responses and temperament in Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bull., 30(2): 139-147.
 
24. Ankush, P., Khan, A., Koul, A. and Thirumurughan, P. (2014) Heat stress ameliorating effect of water showering on physiological parameters of crossbred dairy cattle. Indian Vet. J., 91(6): 51-53.
 
25. Koubkova, K.I., Kunc, P., Hartlova, H., Flusser, J. and Dolezal, O. (2002) Influence of high environmental temperatures and evaporative cooling on some physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters in high-yielding dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 47(8): 309-318.
 
26. Padilla, L., Matsui, T., Kamiya, Y., Tanaka, M. and Yano, H. (2006) Heat stress decreases plasma vitamin C concentration in lactating cows. Livest. Sci., 101: 300-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.12.002
 
27. Alam, M.R., Gregory, N.G., Uddin, M.S., Jabbar, M.A., Silva-Fletcher, A., Kempson, A.G.C. and Saifuddin, A.K.M. (2010) Frequency of heat stress in cattle and water buffalo at livestock markets in Bangladesh. J. Commonwealth Vet. Assoc., 26: 13.
 
28. Burfeind, O., Suthar, V.S. and Heuwieser, W. (2012) Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology, 78: 2031-2038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.07.024
PMid:23043945
 
29. Singh, V.P., Singh, W.I. and Singh, N.P. (2003) Comparative physiological responses and heat tolerance of lactating Murrah buffaloes under different seasons. Cheiron, 32: 129-131.
 
30. Flamenbaum, I., Wolfenson, D., Kunz, P.L., Maman, M. and Berman, A. (1995) Interactions between body condition at calving and cooling of dairy cows during lactation in summer. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 2221-2229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76849-7
 
31. Omar, E.A., Kirrella, A.K., Fawzy, S.A. and EI-Kerab, Y.F. (1996) Effect of water spray followed by forced ventilation on some physiological status and milk production of post-calving Friesian cows. Alexandria J. Agric. Res., 41: 71-81.
 
32. Shiao, T.F., Chen, J.C., Yang, D.W., Lee, S.N., Lee, C.F. and Cheng, W.T.K. (2011) Feasibility assessment of a tunnel-ventilated, water-padded barn on alleviation of heat stress for lactating Holstein cows in a humid area. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 5393-5404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3730
PMid:22032362
 
33. Barash, H., Silanikove, N., Shamay, A. and Ezra, E. (2001) Interrelationships among ambient temperature, day length and milk yield in dairy cows under a Mediterranean climate. J. Dairy Sci., 84: 2314-2320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74679-6
 
34. Baknik, D., Podgorsek, P., Demsar, P., Ilc, A. and Vidic, A. (2000) The effect of environmental temperature on protein content in cow milk. Krrniva, 42: 283-291. (Cited, Dairy Science Abstract 2001 63(6): 3483.
 
35. Bouraoui, R., Lahmar, M. and Majdoub, A. (2002) The relationship of temperature-humidity index with milk productions of dairy cows in Miditerranean climate. Anim. Res., 51: 479-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002036
 
36. Piotr, H. and Sabina, A. (2013) Forecasting heat stress in dairy cattle in selected barn zones with the help of THI and THIadj indexes. Ann. Anim. Sci., 13(4): 837-848.
 
37. Bernabucci, U., Biffani, S., Buggiotti, L., Vitali, A., Lacetera, N. and Nardone, A. (2014) The effects of heat stress in Italian Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 97: 471-486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6611
PMid:24210494
 
38. Spain, J.N., Spiers, D. and Chastain, J.P. (1998) Effect of fan cooling on thermoregulatory responses of lactating dairy cattle to moderate heat stress. Proceedings of the Fourth International Dairy Housing Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 28-30 January, 12th Reference. p232-238.
 
39. Singh, M. and Mehla, R.K. (1999) Crossbred cows: How to improve milk yield agriculture and industry survey.p34-35.
 
40. Itoh, F., Obara, Y., Michael, T., Rose Fuse, H. and Hashimoto, H. (1998) Insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating cows during heat exposure. J. Anim. Sci., 76: 2182-2189.
PMid:9734870
 
41. Ferdinando, C., Luigi, C. and Frazzi, E. (2011) Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn. Int. J. Biometeorol., 56: 287-295.
 
42. Lambertz, S.C. and Gauly, M. (2014) Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems. J. Dairy Sci., 97: 319-329.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7217
PMid:24239072