Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 21-02-2015)

13. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor - Debashis Roy, S. K. Tomar and Vinod Kumar

Veterinary World, 8(2): 203-207



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.203-207


Debashis Roy: Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India;

S. K. Tomar: Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India;

Vinod Kumar: Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar

Pradesh, India;


Received: 15-09-2014, Revised: 02-01-2015, Accepted: 09-01-2015, Published online: 21-02-2015


Corresponding author: Debashis Roy , e-mail:

Citation: Roy D, Tomar SK, Kumar V (2015) Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor, Veterinary World 8(2):203-207.

Aim: The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet.

Materials and Methods: Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor.

Results: Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p<0.05) total gas production, feed degradability and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration whereas total VFA concentration was significantly lower (p>0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (p<0.05) total gas production, feed degradability, total VFA and acetate to propionate ratio. Methane production was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels of clove and peppermint oil.

Conclusion: Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

Keywords: ammonia nitrogen, essential oil, rumen fermentation, methane, wheat straw.

1. Babu, A.J., Rupa Sundari, A., Indumathi, J., Srujan, R.V.N. and Sravanthi, M. (2011) Study on the antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils of spices. Vet. World, 4(7): 311-316.
2. FDA. (2004) Freedom of Information Summary. Supplemental New Animal Drug Application. NADA 095-735. Monensin Sodium (RUMENSIN 80): Type A Medicated Article for Dairy Cattle. Available from: Accessed on 02-01-2014.
3. Lin, B., Lu, Y., Wang, J.H., Liang, Q. and Liu, J.X. (2012) The effects of combined essential oils along with fumarate on rumen fermentation and methane production in vitro. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 198-210.
4. Lin, B., Wang, J.H., Lu, Y., Liang, Q. and Liu, J.X. (2013) In vitro rumen fermentation and methane production are influenced by active components of essential oils combined with fumarate. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 97(1): 1-9.
5. Jahani-Azizabadi, H., Danesh Mesgaran, M., Vakili, A.R., Rezayazdi, K. and Hashemi, M. (2011) Effect of various medicinal plant essential oils obtained from semi-arid climate on rumen fermentation characteristics of a high forage diet using in vitro batch culture. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5: 4812-4819.
6. Tager, L.R. and Krause, K.M. (2011) Effects of essential oils on rumen fermentation, milk production, and feeding behavior in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(5): 2455-2464.
7. Tassoul, M.D. and Shaver, R.D. (2009) Effect of a mixture of supplemental dietary plant essential oils on performance of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 92(4): 1734-1740.
8. Ízdoğan, M., Ínenš, S.S. and Ínenš, A. (2011) Fattening performance, blood parameters and slaughter traits of Karya lambs consuming blend of essential oil compounds. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: 6663-6669.
9. Meyer, N.F., Erickson, G.E., Klopfenstein, T.J., Greenquist, M.A., Luebbe, M.K., Williams, P. and Engstrom, M.A. (2009) Effect of essential oils, tylosin and monensin on finishing steer performance, carcass characteristics, liver abscesses, ruminal fermentation and digestibility. J. Anim. Sci., 87(7): 2346-2354.
10. US-EPA. (2007) Available from Last accessed on 20/08/2014.
11. AOAC. (2000) Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed., 5th Revision. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA. p930-954.
12. Van Soest, P.J. and Robertson, J.B. (1981) The detergent system of analysis and its application to human food. In: James, W.P.T. and Theander, O, editors. The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York. p123-158.
13. Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988) Estimation of energetic feed value obtained by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev., 28: 7-55.
14. Goering, H.K. and Van Soest, P.J. (1970) Forage Fibre Analysis. (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications). Agricultural Handbook 379. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
15. Alexander, G., Singh, B., Sahoo, A. and Bhat, T. (2008) In vitro screening of plant extracts to enhance the efficiency of utilization of energy and nitrogen in ruminant diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 145: 229-244.
16. Barnett, J.G. and Reid, R.L. (1957) Studies on the production of volatile fatty acids from grass by rumen liquor in an artificial rumen. The volatile fatty acid production from grass. J. Agric. Sci. Camb., 48: 315-321.
17. Erwin, E.S., Macro, G.A. and Emery, E.M. (1961) Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci., 44: 1768-1771.
18. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi. p215-237.
19. SPSS. (2010) Statistical Packages for Social Sciences, IBM SPSS 19 Statistics. Available from: Accessed on 02-01-2014.
20. Ranjhan, S.K. (1998) Nutrient Requirements of Livestock and Poultry. 1st ed. ICAR Publication, New Delhi, India. p65-70.
21. Ayyappan, K. and Tomar, S.K. (2006) Evaluation of faecal inoculum for estimating digestibility of feedstuffs. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 23: 59-62.
22. Devi, K.P., Nisha, S.A., Sakthivel, R. and Pandian, S.K. (2010) Eugenol (an essential oil of clove) acts as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella typhi by disrupting the cellular membrane. J. Ethnopharmacol., 130(1): 107-115.
23. Pei, R.S., Zhou, F., Ji, B.P. and Xu, J. (2009) Evaluation of combined antibacterial effects of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol against E. coli with an improved method. J. Food Sci., 74(7): 379-383.
24. BassolÚ, I.H.N. and Juliani, H.R. (2012) Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules, 17(4): 3989-4006.
25. Ultee, A., Bennik, M.H.J. and Moezelaar, R. (2002) The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68(4): 1561-1568.
PMid:11916669 PMCid:PMC123826
26. Castillejos, L., Calsamiglia, S. and Ferret, A. (2006) Effect of essential oils active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation and nutrient flow in in vitro systems. J. Dairy Sci., 89(7): 2649-2658.
27. Busquet, M., Calsamiglia, S., Ferret, A. and Kamel, C. (2006) Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci., 89(2): 761-771.
28. Craig, W.J. (1999) Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70 3 Suppl: 491S-499S.
29. Agarwal, N., Shekhar, C., Kumar, R., Chaudhary, L.C. and Kamra, D.N. (2009) Effect of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil on in vitro methanogenesis and fermentation of feed with buffalo rumen liquor. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 148: 321-327.
30. Wallace, R.J., McEwan, N.R., McIntosh, F.M. and Newbold, C.J. (2002) Natural products as manipulators of rumen fermentation. Asian Aust. J Anim., 15: 1458-1468.
31. Patra, A.K., Kamra, D.N. and Agarwal, N. (2005) Effect of spices on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and protozoa counts in in vitro gas production test. In: Soliva, C.R., Takahashi, J. and Kreuzer, M, editors. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture. ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. p115-118.
32. Broderick, G.A. and Balthrop, J.E. (1979) Chemical inhibition of amino acid deamination by ruminal microbes in vitro. J. Anim. Sci., 49: 1101-1111.
33. Evans, J.D. and Martin, S.A. (2000) Effects of thymol on ruminal microorganisms. Curr. Microbiol., 41(5): 336-340.
34. Yasuo, K. (2010) Abatement of methane production from ruminants: Trends in the manipulation of rumen fermentation. Asian Aust. J Anim., 23(3): 410-416.