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Research (Published online: 02-01-2015)

1. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram - Shivani Modi, M. N. Brahmbhatt, Y. A. Chatur and J. B. Nayak

Veterinary World, 8(1): 1-8



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1-8



Shivani Modi: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India;

M. N. Brahmbhatt: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India;

Y. A. Chatur: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India;

J. B. Nayak: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India;


Received: 05-08-2014, Revised: 22-11-2014, Accepted: 29-11-2014, Published: 02-01-2015


Corresponding author: Shivani Modi, e-mail:

Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India.

Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection.

Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene.

Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, Campylobacter jejuni, polymerase chain reaction, virulence gene

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