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Research (Published online: 29-01-2015)

21. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants - A. Ishfaq, R. K. Sharma, A. Rastogi, B. A. Malla and J. Farooq

Veterinary World, 8(1): 109-115



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.109-115



A. Ishfaq: Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

R. K. Sharma: Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

A. Rastogi: Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

B. A. Malla: Department of Animal Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India:

J. Farooq: Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;


Received: 24-08-2014, Revised: 17-12-2014, Accepted: 25-12-2014, Published online: 29-01-2015


Corresponding author: A. Ishfaq, e-mail:

Aim: The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF) replacement basis in adult male goats.

Materials and Methods: Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters.

Results: Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM), microbial biomass production (MBP), efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF).

Conclusion: In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most important finding was that about 78% of nitrogen present in Indian olive cake is available to animal in contrary to that of European olive cake. We concluded from in vitro studies that Indian olive cake can be included in complete feed at 30% level (w/w; 40% ADF replacement) for feeding in small ruminants without compromising in vitro degradability of the feed.

Keywords: acid detergent insoluble nitrogen-non, lime, male goats, olive cake, truly degradable organic matter

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