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Research (Published online: 06-01-2015)

4. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora) fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants - B. A. Malla, A. Rastogi, R. K. Sharma, A. Ishfaq and J. Farooq

Veterinary World, 8(1): 19-23



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.19-23



B. A. Malla: Department of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India;

A. Rastogi: Division of Animal Nutrition, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

R. K. Sharma: Division of Animal Nutrition, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

A. Ishfaq: Division of Animal Nutrition, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

J. Farooq: Division of Animal Nutrition, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India;


Received: 25-08-2014, Revised: 19-11-2014, Accepted: 28-11-2014, Published: 06-01-2015


Corresponding author: B. A. Malla, email:

Aim: Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW) silage and its utilization by adult male goats.

Materials and Methods: KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6) namely “oat silage (OS)” and “Kinnow silage.” Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes.

Results: Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p<0.05) and lower (p<0.01) crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fibre concentration in KMW silage as compared to OS. However, silages were isonitrogenous (8.20 vs. 8.17; p>0.05 for CP) and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05) calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen) and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p<0.05) in KMW silage, whereas, lactic acid concentration was higher (6.23 vs. 8.14; p<0.05) in KMW silage indicating its superior quality as compared to OS. Body weight (kg) of goats and silage intake (g/day), were comparable (p>0.05) among the two dietary groups.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.

Keywords: citrus waste, goats, kinnow mandarin waste, silage.

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