Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 17-06-2015)

8 Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram - P. Mayengbam and T. C. Tolenkhomba

Veterinary World, 8(6): 732-737



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.732-737


P. Mayengbam: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India;

T. C. Tolenkhomba: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India;


Received: 17-02-2015, Revised: 01-05-2015, Accepted: 07-05-2015, Published online: 17-06-2015


Corresponding author: Prava Mayengbam, e-mail:

Citation: Mayengbam P, Tolenkhomba TC (2015) Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram, Veterinary World 8(6): 732-737.

Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age.

Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits.

Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets.

Keywords: enzyme, electrolyte, hematology, Mizoram, pig, Zovawk.

1. Huynh, T.T.T., Aarnink, A.J.A., Verstegen, M.W.A., Gerrits, W.J.J., Heetkamp, M.J.W., Kemp, B. and Canh, T.T. (2005) Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities. J. Anim. Sci., 83(6): 1385-1396.
2. Nienaber, J.A., Hahn, G.L., McDonald, T.P. and Korthals, R.L. (1996) Feeding patterns and swine performance in hot environments. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., 39: 195-202.
3. Hahn, G.L., Nienaber, J.A. and DeShazer, J.A. (1987) Air temperature influences on swine performance and behaviour. Appl. Eng. Agric., 3(2): 295-302.
4. Pearce, S.C., Mani, V., Weber, T.E., Rhoads, R.P., Patience, J.F., Baumgard, L.H. and Gabler, N.K. (2013) Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 91(11): 5183-5193.
5. Pourouchottamane, R., Pankaj, P.K., Banik, S., Naskar, S. Venkatsubramanian, V. and Ramana, D.B.V. (2013) Effect of micro-environmental variations on biomolecular profile and performance of pig. J. Agrometeorol., 15(1): 1-6.
6. 18th Livestock Census. (2007) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.
7. Tolenkhomba, T.C., Saikia, P., Hmar, L., Lalthazuali, Prava, M. and Singh, N.S. (2013) Principal component analysis of body measurements in Mizo local pigs. Indian J. Vet. Res., 22(1): 26-31.
8. Mayengbam, P., Tolenkhomba, T.C. and Ali, M.A. (2014) Hematological profile of Zovawk-and indigenous pig of Mizoram. Vet. World, 7: 505-508.
9. Friendship, R.M., Lumsden, J.H., McMillan, I. and Wilson, M.R. (1984) Hematology and biochemistry reference values for Ontario swine. Can. J. Comp. Med., 48(4): 390-393.
PMid:6509366 PMCid:PMC1236090
10. De, A.K., Kundu, A., Kundu, M.S., Sunder, J. and Jeyakumar, S. (2013) Comparative study on haematological traits of endangered Andaman wild pig and other indigenous pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Vet. World, 6(10): 794-798.
11. Harapin, I., Bedrica, L., Hahn, V., Sostaric, B. and Gracner, D. (2003) Haematological and biochemical values in blood of wild boar. Vet. Arch., 73(6): 333-343, 12.
12. Semiadi, G. and Nugraha, R.T.P. (2009) Some notes on biological aspects of captive Javan warty pig (Sus verrucosus). Biodeversitas, 10(3): 124-128.
13. Klem, T.B., Bleken, E., Morberg, H., Thoren, S.I. and Framstad, T. (2010) Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Norwegian crossbreed grower pigs. Vet. Clin. Pathol., 39(2): 221-226.
14. Eze, J.I., Onunkwo, J.I., Shyinka, S.V.O., Chah, F.K., Ngene, A.A., Okolinta, N., Nwanta, J.A. and Onyenwe, I.W. (2010) Haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management system in south-eastern Nigeria. Nig. Vet. J., 31(2): 115-123.
15. Cooper, C.A., Moraes, L.E., Murray, J.D. and Owens, S.D. (2014) Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Bioctech., 5: 1-5.
16. Mayengbam, P., Tolenkhomba, T.C. Ali, M.A., Saikia, P., Singh, N.S. and Hmar, L. (2012) Electrolyte (Na, K, Cl, Pi and Mg) profile of Zovawk pigs of Mizoram, India in different age groups. Int. Mult. Res. J., 2(2): 49-51.
17. Kumaresan, A., Bujarbaruah, K.M., Pathak, K.A., Das, A. and Ramesh, T. (2009) Mineral profiling of local pig-feeds and pigs reared under resource driven production system to reduce porcine mineral deficiency in subtropical hill ecosystem of Northeastern India. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41: 669-675.
18. Statistical Abstract. (2003) Department of Agricultural and Minor Irrigation, Government of Mizoram, Aizawl.
19. Johnson, H.D., Ragsdale, A.C., Berry, I.L. and Shanklin, M.D. (1962) Effect of various temperature-humidity combinations on milk production of Holstein cattle. M. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. MO. Agric. Exp. Stn., ???: 791.Res. Bull. Missouri Agric. Exp. Station, Bulletin no. 791.
20. Collin, A., Milgan, J.V., Dubbbois, S. and Noblet, J. (2001) Effect of high temperature on feeding behavior and heat production in group-housed young pigs. Br. J. Nutr., 86(1): 63-70.
21. Huynh, T.T.T., Aarnink, A.J.A., Gerrits, W.J.J., Heetkamp, M.J.H., Canh, T.T., Spoolder, H.A.M., Kemp, B. and Verstegen, M.W.A. (2005) Thermal behaviour of growing pigs in response to high temperature and humidity. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 91(1-2): 1-16.
22. Ajuogu, P.K., Latona, P., Ajayi, F.O. and Ekine, O.A. (2010) Influence of wallow on some hematological parameters and serum enzymes in growing pigs. Anim. Prod. Res. Adv., 6(2): 139-142.
23. Salvaggio, A., Pariti, M., Miano, L., Tavanelli, M. and Marzorati, D. (1991) Body mass index and liver enzyme activity in serum. Clin. Chem., 37: 720-723.
24. Kumar, S, Amarappurkar, A. and Amarappurkar, D. (2013) Serum aminotransferase levels in healthy population from western India. Indian J. Med. Res., 138: 894-899.
PMid:24521632 PMCid:PMC3978978
25. Rosol, T.J. and Capen. C.C. (1999) Calcium-regulating hormones and diseases of abnormal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) metabolism. In: Kaneko, J.J., Harvey J.W. and Bruss, M.L. editors. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. Harcourt Brace & Company Asia PTE LTD, Singapore. p619-702.
26. Devgun, M.S., Paterson, C.R. and Martin, B.T. (1981) Seasonal changes in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase. Enzyme, 26(6): 301-305.
27. Sarma, K., Konwar, B., Ali, A., Das, G., Kalita, G., Ahmed, F.A., Saikia, B., Bayan, H. and Nayan, V. (2011) Haemato-buiochemical parameters of Burmese pig of subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 81(8): 819-821.
28. Chmielowiec-Koreniowska, A., Tymczyna, L. and Babicz, M. (2012) Assessment of selected parametrs of biochemistry, hematology, immunology and production of pigs fattened in different seasons. Arch. Tierz., 55(5): 469-479.
29. Adenkola, A.Y., Ayo, J.O., Sackey, A.K.B. and Adelaiye, A.B. (2009) Haematological and serum biochemical changes in pigs administered with ascorbic acid and transported by road for four hours during the harmattan season. J. Cell. Anim. Biol., 3(2): 21-28.
30. Humes, H.D. (1984) In: Kokko, J.P. and Tannes, R.L., editors. Fluids and Electrolytes. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. p119-149.
31. Desroches, D. and Martin, C.R. (1986) Vitamin D, parathyroid, and thymus gland influences on seasonal variations in renal electrolyte excretion. Bone, 7(3): 223-228.
32. Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S.S. and Dallal, G.E. (1997) Plasma calcidol, season, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration in healthy elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 65: 67-71.
33. Siddiqui, A.A. and Wilson, D.R. (1972) Primary hyperthyroidism and proximal renal tubular acidosis: Report of two cases. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 106(6): 654-659.
PMid:5012229 PMCid:PMC1940492
34. Johson, D.W. (1941) Meeting the vitamin D requirement of pigs with alfalfa hay and winter sunshine. J. Agric. Res., 63(11): 639-648.