Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 16-03-2015)

13. Biological and molecular characterization of classical swine fever challenge virus from India - Parveen Kumar, Vikramaditya Upmanyu and Pronab Dhar

Veterinary World, 8(3): 330-335



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.330-335


Parveen Kumar: Division of Biological Standardization, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Vikramaditya Upmanyu: Division of Biological Standardization, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Pronab Dhar: Division of Biological Standardization, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;


Received: 14-12-2014, Revised: 24-01-2015, Accepted: 29-01-2015, Published online: 16-03-2015


Corresponding author: Parveen Kumar, e-mail:

Citation: Kumar P, Upmanyu V, Dhar P (2015) Biological and molecular characterization of classical swine fever challenge virus from India, Veterinary World 8(3):330-335.

Aim: The aim of this study was biological and molecular characterization of classical swine fever (CSF) challenge virus from India.

Materials and Methods: CSF challenge virus maintained at Division of Biological standardization was experimentally infected to two seronegative piglets. The biological characterization was done by clinical sign and symptoms along with postmortem findings. For molecular characterization 5’-nontranslated region, E2 and NS5B regions were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The sequences were compared with that of reference strains and the local field isolates to establish a phylogenetic relation.

Results: The virus produced symptoms of acute disease in the piglets with typical post-mortem lesions. Phylogenetic analysis of the three regions showed that the current Indian CSF Challenge virus is having maximum similarity with the BresciaX strain (USA) and Madhya Pradesh isolate (India) and is belonging to subgroup 1.2 under Group 1.

Conclusion: Based on biological and molecular characterization of CSF challenge virus from India is described as a highly virulent virus belonging to subgroup 1.2 under Group 1 along with some field isolates from India and Brescia strain.

Keywords: Classical Swine fever, Challenge virus, molecular characterization, biological characterization, phylogeny

1. Barman, N.N., Bora, D.P., Khatoon, E., Mandal, S., Rakshit, A., Rajbongshi, G., Depner, K., Chakraborty, A. and Kumar, S. (2014) Classical swine fever in wild hog: Report of its prevalence in Northeast India. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., doi: 10.1111/tbed.12298.
2. Moennig, V., Floegel-Niessmann, G. and Greiser-Wilke, I., (2003) Clinical signs and epidemiology of classical swine fever: A review of new knowledge. Vet. J., 165(1): 11-20.
3. OIE. (2014) Classical Swine Fever. OIE Terrestrial Manual 2014. Chapter 2.8.3. accessed on 19-12-14.
4. Chander, V., Nandi, S., Ravishankar, C., Upmanyu, V. and Verma, R. (2014) Classical swine fever in pigs: Recent developments and future perspectives. Anim. Health. Res. Rev., 15(1): 87-101.
5. Donahuea, B.C., Petrowskia, H.M., Melkonianb, K., Warda, G.B., Mayra, G.A. and Metwallya, S. (2012) Analysis of clinical samples for early detection of classical swine fever during infection with low, moderate, and highly virulent strains in relation to the onset of clinical signs. J. Virol. Methods., 179: 108-115.
6. Meyers, G. and Thiel, H.J. (1996) Molecular characterization of pestiviruses. Adv. Virus Res., 47: 53-118.
7. Ruggli, N., Tratschin, J.D., Mittelholzer, C. and Hofmann, M.A. (1996) Nucleotide sequence of classical swine fever virus strain Alfort/187 and transcription of infectious RNA from stably cloned full-length cDNA. J. Virol., 70(6): 3478-3487.
PMid:8648680 PMCid:PMC190221
8. Paton, D.J., McGoldrick, A., Greiser-Wilke, I., Parchariyanon, S., Song, J.Y., Liou, P.P., Stadejek, T., Lowings, J.P., Bjorklund, H. and Belak, S. (2000) Genetic typing of classical swine fever virus. Vet. Microbiol., 73(2-3): 137-157.
9. Lowings, J.P., Ibata, G., Needham, J. and Paton, D.J. (1996) Classical swine fever diversity and evaluation. J. Gen. Virol., 77: 1311-1371.
10. Bjorklund, H., Lowings, P., Stadejek, T., Vilcek, S., Greiser-Wilke, I., Paton, D. and Belak, S. (1999) Phylogenetic comparison and molecular epidemiology of classical swine fever virus. Virus Gene., 19: 189-195.
11. Sarma, D.K., Mishra, N, Vilcek, S., Rajukumar, K., Behera, S.P., Nema, R.K., Dubey, P. and Dubey, S.C. (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of recent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates from Assam, India. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 34(1): 11-15.
12. Hofmann, B., Beer, M., Schelp, C., Schirrmeier, H. and Depner, K. (2005) Validation for a real-time RT-PCR assay for sensitive and specific detection of classical swine fever. J. Virol. Methods, 130: 36-44.
13. Katz, J.B., Ridpath, J.F. and Bolin, S.R. (1993) Presumptive diagnostic differentiation of hog cholera virus from bovine viral diarrhea and border disease viruses by using a cDNA nested-amplification approach. J. Clin. Mmicrobiol., 13(3): 565-568.
14. Patil, S.S., Hemadri, D., Shankar, B.P., Raghavendra, A.G, Veeresh, H, Sindhoora, B, Chandan, S, Gagendragad, M.R., Sreekala, K. and Prabhudas, K. (2010) Genetic typing of recent classical swine fever isolates from India. Vet. Microbiol., 141(3-4): 367-373.
15. Poster, A., Schmeiser, S., Perera, C.L., Rodreguez, L.J.P., Faris-Lepoureau, M.T. and Becher, P. (2014) Classical swine fever isolates from Cuba form a new subgenotype 1.4. Vet. Microbiol., 161(3-4): 334-338.
16. Tamura, K, Stecher, G, Peterson, D, Filipski, A. and Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol., 30(12): 2725-2729.
PMid:24132122 PMCid:PMC3840312
17. Greiser-Wilke, I. Zimmermannb, B., Fritzemeiera, J, Floegelc G. and Moennig, V. (2000) Structure and presentation of a World Wide Web database of CSF virus isolates held at the EU reference laboratory. Vet. Microbiol., 73(2-3): 131-136.
18. Desai, G.S., Sharma, A., Kataria, R.S., Barman, N.N. and Tiwari, A.K. (2010) 5'-UTR-based phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from India. Acta Virol., 54(1): 79-82.