Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


Research (Published online: 18-03-2015)

17. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78)

infection in chickens - Y. A. Geidam, A. G. Ambali, P. A. Onyeyili, M. B. Tijjani, H. I. Gambo and I. A. Gulani

Veterinary World, 8(3): 358-362

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.358-362

 

Y. A. Geidam: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria;

A. G. Ambali: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; aambali076@yahoo.com

P. A. Onyeyili: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria; onyeyili@gmail.com

M. B. Tijjani: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; bashvet@yahoo.com

H. I. Gambo: Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; hgambo24@yahoo.com

I. A. Gulani: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; gulaniisa@yahoo.com

 

Received: 28-11-2014, Revised: 10-02-2015, Accepted: 16-02-2015, Published online: 18-03-2015

 

Corresponding author: Y.A. Geidam, email: ygeidam@yahoo.com


Citation: Geidam YA, Ambali AG, Onyeyili PA, Tijjani MB, Gambo HI, Gulani IA (2015) Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens, Veterinary World, 8(3): 358-362.



Aim: This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78.

Methods: A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment.

Results: Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention.

Conclusion: Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks.

Keywords: antibacteria, chickens Escherichia coli, efficacy, Psidium guajava



1. Saif, Y.M. (2003) Disease of Poultry. 11th ed. Iowa State Press, A Black Well Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa, USA. p631-652.
 
2. Ewers, C., Janssen, T. and Wieler L.H. (2003) Avian commercial chickens. Pathogenic E. coli (APEC): A review. Berl. Muuch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr, 116(9-10): 381-395.
PMid:14526468
 
3. Dutta, T.K., Roychoudhury, P., Bandyopadhyay, S., Wani S.A. and Hussain, I. (2011) Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) & enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in poultry birds with diarrhea. Indian J. Med. Res., 133: 541-545.
PMid:21623041 PMCid:PMC3121287
 
4. Bass, L., Liebert, C.A., Lee, M.D., Summers, A.O., White, D.G., Thayer, S.G. and Maurer, J.J. (1999) Incidence and characterization of integrons, genetic elements mediating multiple-drug resistance, in avian Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 43: 2925-2929.
PMid:10582884 PMCid:PMC89589
 
5. Price, L.B., Johnson, J.R., Aziz, M., Clabots, C., Johnston, B., Tchesnokova, V., Nordstrom, L., Billig, M., Chattopadhyay, S., Stegger, M., Andersen, P.S., Pearson, T., Riddell, K., Rogers, P., Scholes, D., Kahl, B., Keim, P. and Sokurenko, E.V. (2013) The epidemic of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli ST131 is driven by a single highly pathogenic subclone, H30-Rx. mBio, 4(6): e00377-13.
 
6. Laura, F.M., Bo, A., Chris, M., Inge, C.G., Anthony, D.S., Dominque, L. and Monnet, O.C. (2011) The ECDC-EMA group working; critical shortage of new antibiotics in development against multi-drug resistant bacteria, time to act is now. Drug Resist. Updat., 14(2): 118-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drup.2011.02.003
PMid:21435939
 
7. Prakash, S.K. (2006) Effects of herbal extracts towards microbicidal activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 259-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2006.259.261
 
8. Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. (2010) Content and antibacterial activity of flavonoids extracted from leaves of Psidium guajava. J. Med. Plant. Res., 4(5): 393-396.
 
9. Lawal, I.O., Uzokwe, N.E., Igboanyo, A.B.I., Adio, A.F., Awosan, E.A., Nwogwugwu, J.O., Faloye, B., Olatunji, B.P. and Adesoga, A.A. (2010) Ethno medicinal information on collation and identification of some medicinal plants in research institutes of south-west Nigeria. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 4(1): 001-007.
 
10. Geidam, Y.A., Ambali, A.G. and Onyeyili, P.A. (2007) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of organic solvent fractions of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract. Int. J. Pharmacol., 3(1): 68-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2007.68.73
 
11. Cho, E.J., Yokozawa, T., Rhyu, D.Y., Kim, S.C., Shibahara, N. and Park, J.C. (2003) Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main Compounds on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Phytomedicine, 10: 544-551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/094471103322331520
PMid:13678241
 
12. Motohashi, N., Wakabayashi, H., Kurihara, T., Fukushima, H., Yamada, T., Kawase, M., Sohara, Y., Tarira, S., Shimtaki, Y., Sakagami, H., Satoh, K., Nakashima, H., Molnar, A., Spengler, G., Gyemant N., Ugoesai, K. and Molnar, J. (2004) Biological activity of Barbados cherry (Acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighiae marginata DC) extracts and fractions. Phytother. Res., 18: 212-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1426
PMid:15103668
 
13. Ameh, J.A., Egwu, G.O., Osiyemi, T.I.O., Rabo, J.S. Igbokwe, I.O. Masdoo, Q.A.A., Ali, H. and Salako, M.A. (2003) Clinico-pathological findings following experimental infection of kids with enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli from diarrhoeaic kids. Stud. Res. Vet. Sci. (Bucharest), 9: 61-68.
 
14. GraphPad InStat (1998) Graph Pad InStat version 3.00 for Windows 95, Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA. Copyright 1992-1998 Graph Pad Software Inc. Available from: http://www.graphpad.com. Last Accessed on 20-11-2014.
 
15. West, C.E. and Castenmiller, J.J. (1998) Quantification of the "slamenghi" factors for carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 68(6): 371-377.
PMid:9857264
 
16. Thilakarathna, S.H. and Rupasinghe, H.P.V. (2013) Flavonoid bioavailability and attempts for bioavailability enhancement. Nutrients, 5: 3367-3387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5093367
PMid:23989753 PMCid:PMC3798909
 
17. Bone, K. (1998) Herbal pharmacokinetics; the behaviour of large molecules. Proceedings of the NHAA International Conference (NHAA'98), Sydney.
 
18. Tijjani, M.B., Barkindo, A.A.,Ngulde, S.I., Wampana, B. and Sanda, K.A. (2013) Evaluation of anti-diarrheal efficacy of Detarium microcarpum stem bark aqueous extract in albino rats. J. Med. Sci., 13(6): 477-482.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jms.2013.477.482
 
19. Sandhu, H.S. and Rampal, S. (2006) Essentials of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India. p1158-1177.
 
20. Silva, F., Lourenšo, O., Queiroz, J.A. and Domingues, F.C. (2011) Bacteriostatic versus bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli assessed by flow cytometry using a novel far-red dye. J. Antibiot., 64, 321-332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ja.2011.5
PMid:21326251