Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 30-03-2015)

30. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria - Adamu Saleh Saidu, E. C. Okolocha, A. A. Gamawa, M. Babashani and N. A. Bakari

Veterinary World, 8(3): 432-437



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.432-437


Adamu Saleh Saidu: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB, 1013, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria;

E. C. Okolocha: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB, 1013, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria;

A. A. Gamawa: Department of Animal Health, College of Agriculture, Bauchi State, Nigeria;

M. Babashani: Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB, 1013, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria;

N. A. Bakari: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB, 1013, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria;


Received: 27-10-2014, Revised: 12-02-2015, Accepted: 17-02-2015, Published online: 30-03-2015


Corresponding author: Adamu Saleh Saidu, e-mail:

Citation: Saidu AS, Okolocha EC, Gamawa AA, Babashani M, Bakari NA (2015) Occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Veterinary World, 8(3):432-437.

Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s) of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM), as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB).

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl- Neelsen staining (ZN) and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.

Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%), followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30%) while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2) of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10), then the lungs 29.23% (19/65); while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2), followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8), and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65). The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28) tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%), followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7%) and then Misau with 13 (10.8%). By the ZN staining technique, there were 25 (33.33%) positivity in Bauchi Zonal abattoir, while Katagum and Misau abattoirs had 9 (28.13%) and 1 (7.72%) positive respectively. By the PCR technique, 9 (12.00%), 1 (3.13%) and 0 (0.00%) positive cases were recorded for Bauchi, Katagum and Misau abattoirs respectively.

Conclusion: The present study estimated the prevalence rate of bTB in Bauchi State, using PM, ZN and PCR techniques at 15.0%, 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Bovine TB lesions found at PM were not all due to M. bovis alone, as other MTBC and AFB organisms may cause bTB-like lesions that were excluded by PCR specific primers. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi abattoir that supplies larger population of the state with beef. These findings also demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities in the state to intervene in the control of the zoonotic bTB.

Keywords: abattoir, Bauchi state, bovine TB, PCR, post-mortem, Ziehl-Neelsen.

1. WHO (2008) World Health Organization Report, WHO Publication on Tuberculosis, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2012: Global Tuberculosis Control - Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO, Geneva.
2. Tiruviluamala, P. and Reichman, L.B. (2002) Tuberculosis. Ann. Rev. Public Health, 23: 403-426.
3. WHO. (2012) Global Tuberculosis Report: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. WHO Report. P1-100. Available from: Accessed on 09-10-2013.
4. Zignol, M., Hosseini, M.S., Wright, A., Weezenbeek, C.L., Nunn, P., Watt, C.J., Williams, B.G. and Dye, C. (2006) Global incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis., 194: 479-485.
5. Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C., Hinchey, K.W. and Gray, C.C. (2007) Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of Diseases of Cattle Sheep, Pigs, Goats, Horses. 10th ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier.
6. O'Reilly, L.M. and Daborn, C.J. (1995) The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: A review. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 76: 1-46.
7. Shitaye, J.E., Tsegaye, W. and Pavlik. I. (2007) Bovine tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in Ethiopia. A Rev. Vet. Med., 52: 317-322.
8. WHO. (2010) Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning and Financing. WHO Report, WHO/HTM/TB/2010.7. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
9. Shaler, C.R., Horvath, C.N., Jeyanathan, M. and Xing, Z. (2013) Within the Enemy's Camp: Contribution of the granuloma to the dissemination, persistence and transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Front. Immunol., 4(30): 1-8.
10. Shehu, L.M. (1988) Survey of tuberculosis and tubercle bacilli in Fulani herds, "Nono" and some herdsmen in Zaria area, Nigeria. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. P 84-103.
11. Cadmus, S.I.B. and Adesokan, H.K. (2009) Causes and implications of organs/offal condemnations in some abattoirs in Western Nigeria. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod., 41: 1455-1463.
12. Isioma, D.C., Chukwu, O.O., Yvonne, T.K., Olajide, O., Chika, N., Godwin, O.A., Benshak, J.A. and Solomon, C.C. (2013) Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in lung specimen of slaughtered cattle and goats by a DNA based multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen methods in Jos, Nigeria. Br. Microbiol. Res. J., 3(4): 550-556.
13. Martin, S. (2009) Zoonoses. 2nd ed. Pharmacutical Press, (PhP), London. p87-91.
14. Collins, C.H. and Grange J.M. (1987) Zoonotic implication of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Int. Vet. J., 41: 363-366.
15. Charles, T.O., LoBue, P.A., Enarson, D.A., Kaneene, J.B. and de Kantor, I.N. (2009) Tuberculosis: A re-emerging disease in animals and humans. Vet. Ital., 45(1): 135-181.
16. Good, M. and Duignan, A. (2011) An evaluation of the Irish single reactor breakdown protocol for 2005-2008 inclusive and its potential application as a monitor of tuberculin test performance. Vet. Microbiol., 151(1-2): 85-90.
17. Gilbert, N., Mitchella, A., Bourn, D., Mawdsley, J., Clifton-Hardley, R. and Wint, W. (2005) Cattle movement and bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. Nature, 435: 491-496.
18. Cosivi, O., Grange, J.M., Darbon, C.J., Raviglione, M.C., Fujikura, T., Cousins, D., R.A., Robinson, H.F., Huchzermeyer, A.K., de Kantor, I. and Meslin, F.X. (1998) Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 4: 59-70.
PMid:9452399 PMCid:PMC2627667
19. Bauchi State Diary (2009) ABU/ICT-Centre Database. Available from: http// Accessed on 05-09-2012.
20. FAO. (2010) Corporate Documentary Repository., Nigerian cattle population. Available from: Accessed on 18-08-2014.
21. Census. (2006) Nigeria. Available from: Accessed on 18-05-2014, 13:50pm.
22. Mugo, F.W. (2008) Sampling in research. Available from: Accessed on 29-04-2013.
23. Aliyu, M.M., Adamu, A.J. and Bilyaminu, Y.A. (2009) Current prevalence of tuberculous lesions among slaughtered cattle in north eastern state of Nigeria. Rev. Elev. Vet. Pays Trop., 62(1): 13-16.
24. Corner, L.A., Murphy, D. and Gormley, E. (2011) Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): The disease, the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology and control. J. Comp. Pathol., 144: 1-24.
25. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF). (2010) Veterinary Handbook for herd Management of Bovine TB Eradication Programme. (eds). Good, M., Duignan, A., Maher, P. and O'Keeffe J. Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, Ireland. p 199-130.
26. Grist, A. (2008) Bovine Meat Inspection – Anatomy, Physiology and Disease Conditions. 2nd ed. Nottingham, UK, Nottingham University Press. p296.
27. Ron, T., Ben, B., Bill, K. and Ken, C. (2003) Methods of determining age in cattle. Cattle Prod. Lib. CL, 712: 1-3.
28. Kazwala, R.R., Kusihora L.J.M., Kambarage, D.M., Doborn, C.J., Jiwa, S.H.F. and sharp, J.M (1998) Isolation of Mycobacterium species from raw meat of pastoral cattle of the southern highlands of Tanzannia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 30(4): 233-239.
29. Del Portillo, P., Murillo, L.A. and Patarroyo, M.E. (1991) Amplification of a species-specific DNA fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its possible use in diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 29: 2163-2168.
PMid:1939567 PMCid:PMC270291
30. Chomczynski, P. and Sacchi, N. (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem., 162: 156-159.
31. Romero, R.E., Garzón, D.L., Mejía, G.A., Monroy, W., Patarroyo, M.E. and Murillo, L.A. (1999) Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine clinical samples by PCR species-specific primers. Can. J. Vet. Res., 63: 101-106.
PMid:10369566 PMCid:PMC1189527
32. Abubakar, U, B., Shehu, S.A. and Mohammed, F.U. (2011) Retrospective study of tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle at Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria. Med. J., 4(1): 1-4.
33. Igbokwe, I.O., Madaki, I.Y., Danburam, S., Ameh, J.A., Aliyu, M.M. and Nwosu C.O. (2001): Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis lesions in cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in Northeastern Nigeria. Rev. Elev. Méd. Vet. Pays Trop., 54: 191-195.
34. Maho, A., Mbakasse, R.N. and Boulbaye, N. (1997) Seizures causes of Chad's slaughterhouses Eastern Region. LRVZ/F In proceedings of the III days symposium Agro-Silvo-Pastoral, 29/11 in N'djamena, Chad: Research Laboratories of Veterinary and Livestock, Farcha.
35. Karolemeas, K., Mckinley, T.J., Clifton-Hadley, R.S., Goodchild, A.V., Mitchell, A., Johnston, W.T., et al. (2011) Recurrence of bovine tuberculosis breakdowns in Great Britain: Risk factors and prediction. Prev. Vet. Med., 102: 22-29.
36. Ibrahim, S., Umoh, J. U., Ajogi, I., Farouk, U.M., Abubakar, U.B. and Kudi, A.C. (2012) Tuberculosis in humans and cattle in Jigawa state, Nigeria: Risk factors analysis. Vet. Med. Int., 2012: 865924.
PMid:22848868 PMCid:PMC3403483
37. Cadmus, S.I.B, Alonge, D.O. and Adesokan, H.K. (2007) Meat inspection and control isolate of M. bovis as predictors of bovine tuberculosis in Ibadan, Nigeria. Trop. Vet., 25(3): 101-105.
38. Ameni, G, Vordermeier, M, Firdessa, R, Aseffa, A, Hewinson, G., Gordon, S.V. and Berg, S. (2011) Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia. Vet. J., 188(3-4): 359-361.
PMid:20965132 PMCid:PMC3103825
39. Pollock, J.M. and Neill, S.D. (2002) Mycobacterium bovis infection and tuberculosis in cattle. Vet. J., 163: 115-127.
40. Abubakar, U.B., Kudi, A.C., Abdulkadir, I.A., Okaiyeto, S.O. and Ibrahim, S. (2012) Prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedariu↓s) based on post-mortem meat inspection and Ziehl- Neelsen stain in Nigeria. J. Camel Pract. Res., 19: 29-32.
41. Kudi, A.C., Abubakar, U.B. and Ndukum, J.A. (2012) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in camels in Northern Nigeria. J. Camel Pract. Res., 19(1): 81-86.
42. Cleaveland, S., Shaw, D.J., Mfinanga, S.G., Shirima, G., Kazwala, R.R., Eblate, E. and Sharp, M. (2007) Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: Risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis, 87(1): 30-43.