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Research (Published online: 24-11-2015)

11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds - J. Singh, H. S. Banga, R. S. Brar, N. D. Singh, S. Sodhi and G. D. Leishangthem

Veterinary World, 8(11): 1331-1339



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1331-1339


J. Singh: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

H. S. Banga: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

R. S. Brar: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

N. D. Singh: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

S. Sodhi: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

G. D. Leishangthem: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Received: 27-06-2015, Revised: 04-10-2015, Accepted: 15-10-2015, Published online: 24-11-2015


Corresponding author: J. Singh, e-mail:

Citation: Singh J, Banga HS, Brar RS, Singh ND, Sodhi S, Leishangthem GD (2015) Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds, Veterinary World 8(11): 1331-1339.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD) using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s), in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV) antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623) was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and reliable method to demonstrate the IBDV antigen in the altered tissues due to IBDV infection.
Keywords: histopathology, immunohistochemical, infectious bursal disease.

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