Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 31-10-2015)

18. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls - Umesh Kumar, Ajay P. Gawande, Sunil K. Sahatpure, Manoj S. Patil, Chetan K. Lakde, Sachin W. Bonde, Pradnyankur L. Borkar, Ajay J. Poharkar and Baldeo R. Ramteke

Veterinary World, 8(10): 1266-1272



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1266-1272


Umesh Kumar: Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and

Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Ajay P. Gawande: Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and

Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Sunil K. Sahatpure: Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and

Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Manoj S. Patil: Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and

Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Chetan K. Lakde: Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and

Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Sachin W. Bonde: Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Pradnyankur L. Borkar: Frozen Semen Laboratory, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Ajay J. Poharkar: Frozen Semen Laboratory, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

Baldeo R. Ramteke: Frozen Semen Laboratory, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;


Received: 04-05-2015, Revised: 12-09-2015, Accepted: 21-09-2015, Published online: 31-10-2015


Corresponding author: Umesh Kumar, e-mail:

Citation: Kumar U, Gawande AP, Sahatpure SK, Patil MS, Lakde CK, Bonde SW, Borkar PL, Poharkar AJ, Ramteke BR (2015) Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls, Veterinary World 8(10): 1266-1272.

Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls.

Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen.

Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls.

Keywords: acridine orange, acrosomal integrity, crossbred Jersey, DNA integrity, Jersey, semen.

1. Sawale, P. and Kumar, H. (2013) Overview of Indian Diary Industry. Dairy Technology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India.
2. FAO. (2012). Available from: .Accessed on 04-07-2015.
3. Fiaz, M., Usmani, R.H., Abdullah, M. and Ahmad, T. (2010) Evaluation of semen quality of Holstein Friesian and jersey bulls maintained under subtropical environment. Pak. Vet. J., 30(2): 75-78.
4. Holt, W.V., O'Brien, J. and Abaigar, T. (2007). Applications and interpretation of computer-assisted sperm analyses and sperm sorting methods in assisted breeding and comparative research. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 19: 709-718.
5. Mortimer, S.T. (2000) CASA-Practical Aspects. J. Androl., 21(4): 515-524.
6. Sarder, M.J.U. (2005) Scrotal circumference variation on semen characteristics of artificial insemination (AI) bulls. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4(3): 335-340.
7. Shukla, M.K. (2011) Text Book on Applied Veterinary Andrology and Frozen Semen Technology. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi. p93-94.
8. Herman, H.A., Mitchell, J.R. and Doak, G.A. (1994) The Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer and Beef Cattle. Interstate Publishers, Inc. Danville, Illinois, USA.
9. Campbell, R.C., Hancock, J.L. and Rothschild, L. (1952) Counting live and dead bull spermatozoa. Comp. by the A.R.C. Unit of Animal Reproduction and the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. p44-49.
10. Blom, E.A. (1950) One-minute live-dead sperm stain by means of eosin-nigrosin. Fertil. Steril., 1: 176-177.
11. Watson, P.F. (1975) Use of a Giemsa stain to detect change in acrosome of frozen ram spermatozoa. Vet. Rec., 97: 12-15.
12. Jeyendran, R.S., Van der Ven, H.H., Perez-Pelaez, M., Carbo, B.G. and Zaneveld, L.J.D. (1984) Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. J. Reprod. Fertil., 70: 219-228.
13. Tejada, R.I., Mitchell, J.C., Norman, A., Marik, J.J. and Friedman, S. (1984) A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence. Fertil. Steril., 42(1): 87-91.
14. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods. 8th ed. The Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA.
15. Nilani, K., Eswaramohan, T. and Balasubramaniam, K. (2012) Influence of temperature on motility and viability of bovine spermatozoa during cold storage. Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ., 2(12): 1-5.
16. Sugulle, A.H., Bhuiyan, M.M.U. and Shamusddin, M. (2006) Breeding soundness of bull and the quality of their frozen semen used in cattle artificial insemination in Bangladesh. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 18(4): 1-10.
17. Giri, D.K., Barik, A.K., Mishra, D.N., Tripathy, A.K., Palai, T.K. and Rath, P.K. (2011) Semen characteristics and conception in crossbred jersey at different thawing temperature. Indian J. Field Vet., 6(3): 73-75.
18. Tan, Y.J., Zaldi S., Mohammed, Firdane O., Roslan, O. and Shanmugavelu, S. (2014) Semen quality of Brakmas bulls under short term feeding regimes. Malays. J. Anim. Sci., 17(2): 23-30.
19. Hafez, E.S.E. (1980) Artificial Insemination. Reproduction in Farm Animal. 4th ed. Lea and Febriger, Philadelphia. p521-545.
20. Kohli, L.S. (1980) A report on the effect of certain climatological factor on semen quality of Jersey bulls stationed at Bikaner (arid zone). 2nd All India Symposiyum on Animal Reproductive Bangalore.
21. Gupta, H.P., Saxena, V.B. and Tripathi, S.S. (1990) A rapid method for evaluation of semen quality in bulls. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 60(3): 329-330.
22. Suryaprakasam, T.B. and Narasimha Rao, A.V. (1993) Studies on seminal characteristics of multiple breeds AI. bulls. Indian Vet. J., 70: 629-632.
23. Ahmad, M., Asmat, M.T., Rehman, N.U. and Khan, M.Z. (2003) Semen characteristics of Sahiwal bulls in relation to age and season. Pak. Vet. J., 23: 202-206.
24. Sahu, S.B. and Pandit, R.K. (1997) Effect of cryopreservation on sperm of Murrah bulls. Indian J. Anim. Reprod., 18(2): 137-138.
25. Singh, S.P., Pandit, R.K. and Bhadoria, H.B.S. (1997) Effect of freezing on seminal characteristic of Jersey, Sahiwal and their half bred bulls. Indian J. Anim. Res., 18(1): 73-74.
26. Kumar, S. (2002) Studies on the effect of certain additives on quality and fertility of cryopreserved semen of jersey bulls maintained under sub-climate. M.V.Sc. Thesis Submitted to CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, H.P.
27. Sharma, M. (2009) Correlation between certain quality evaluation parameters and fertility of frozen-thawed Jersey crossbred bull semen. Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Thesis Submitted.
28. Verma, H.K., Singh, G.D. and Pant, H.C. (1992) Andrological evaluation of jersey bulls. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 62(5): 405-409.
29. Mandal, D.K., Kumar, M. and Tyagi, S. (2009) Assessment of sperm morphological, livability and plasmallemal integrity in frozen – Thawed semen of sahiwal bulls. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 79(4): 358-361.
30. Zodinsanya, V., Mavi, P.S., Cheema, R.S., Kumar, A. and Gandotra, V.K. (2015) Relationship between rountine analysis/sperm function and fertility tests of cattle bull semen. Asian J. Anim., 9(1): 37-44.
31. Vyas, S., Mohan, G., Dhami, A.J. and Sahni, K.L. (1992) Studies on the norm and correlations of initail and post thaw seminal attributes of triple crossbred bulls. Int. J. Anim. Sci., 7: 73-76.
32. Tomar, N.S. (1984) Artifical Insemination and Reproduction of cattle and Buffalo. 3rd ed. Saroj Prakashan, Allahabad.
33. Sharma, M.L., Mohan, G. and Sahni, K.L. (1990) A comparative study of acrosomal morphology of crossbred and Holstein-Friesian bull semen. Indian J. Anim. Reprod., 11(2): 96-99.
34. Martins, L.F., Pinho, R.O., Siqueira, J.B., Costa, D.S., Miranda Neto, T., Guimarăe, J.D. and Guimarăe, S.E.F. (2013) Hypoosmotic swelling test in young Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Anim. Reprod., 10(4): 684-688.
35. Shukla, M.K., Saha, S., Rathore, K.S., Mishra, G.K., Siddiqui, M.U. and Saxena, S.K. (2013) Comparative study of plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa by using HOS medium and distilled water and their relation with post thaw motility. Indian J. Anim. Reprod., 33(2): 7-9.
36. Zubair, M., Lodhi, L.A., Ahmad, E. and Muhammad, G. (2013) Hypo osmotic swelling test as screening for evaluation of semen of bull. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 1(6): 124-128.
37. Prasad, J.K., Kumar, S., Mohan, G., Agrawal, S.K. and Shankar, U. (1999) Simple modified method for cervical mucus penetration test for quantity assessment of bull semen. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 69(2): 103-110.
38. Nur, Z., Dogan, I., Gunay, U. and Kemal Soylu, M (2005) Relationships between sperm membrane integrity and other semen quality characteristics of the semen of Sannen goat bucks. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulway, 49: 183-187.
39. Holt, W.V. (2000) Basic aspect of frozen storage of semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 59: 97.
40. Kedia, N.K., Tiwari, R.P., Mishra, G.K., Poyam, M.R.P., Pandey, A.K., Nair, A.K. and Sahasrabhude, S.A. (2014) Characteristics and freezability of tharparkar bull semen. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84(4): 382-388.
41. Mishra, S.R., Kundu, A.K. and Mahapatra, A.P.K. (2013) Effect of ambient temperature on membrane integrity of spermatozoa in different breeds of bulls. Bioscan, 8(1): 181-183.
42. Chowdhury, S., Das, S., Gupta, T., Sana, D. and Bose, S. (2014) Evaluation of frozen semen by acrosomal integrity and sperm concentration – Two vital quality parameters of male feritility in bovines. Explor. Anim. Med. Res., 4(1): 101-107.
43. Tasseron, F., Amir, D. and Schindler, H. (1977) Acrosomal damage of ram spermatozoa during dilution, cooling and freezing. J. Reprod. fertil., 51: 461-462.
44. Mondal, M., Karunakaran, M., Lee, K.B. and Rajkhowa, C. (2010) Characterization of Mihun (Bos fronatlis) ejaculates and fertility of cryopreserved sperm. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 118(2-4): 201-216.
45. Nur, Z., Zik, B., Ustuner, B., Sagirkaya, H. and Ozguden, C.G. (2010) Effect of different cryoprotective agent on ram sperm morphology and DNA integrity. Theriogenology, 73: 1267-1275.
46. Martins, C.F., Dode, M.N., Bao, S.N. and Rumpf, R. (2007) The use of the acridine orange test and the TUNEL assay to assess the integrity of freeze-dried bovine spermatozoa DNA. Genet. Mol. Res., 6(1): 94-104.
47. Biloduea, J.F., Blanchette, S. and Gagnon, C. (2001) Thiols prevent H2O2-mediated loss of sperm motility in cryopreserved bull semen. Theriogenology, 56: 275-286.