Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Review (Published online: 19-12-2016)

19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels - Zuhair Bani Ismail

Veterinary World, 9(12): 1450-1455



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1450-1455


Zuhair Bani Ismail: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box: 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan;


Received: 03-09-2016, Accepted: 18-11-2016, Published online: 19-12-2016


Corresponding author: Zuhair Bani Ismail, e-mail:

Citation: Ismail ZB (2016) Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels, Veterinary World, 9(12): 1450-1455.

Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 μg/kg), romifidine (30-50 μg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 μg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

Keywords: buffalo, camel, cattle, epidural analgesia, side effects.

1. Skarda, R.T. and Tranquilli, W.J. (2007) Lumb and Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa, USA.
2. Lee, I., Yoshiuchi, T., Yamagishi, N., Oboshi, K., Ayukawa, Y., Sasaki, N.N. and Yamada, H. (2003) Analgesic effect of caudal epidural ketamine in cattle. J. Vet. Sci., 4: 261-264.
3. Hall, L.W., Clarke, K.W. and Trim, C.M. (2001) Veterinary Anesthesia. Saunders, Elsevier, London.
4. Pereira, F.L.G., Greene, S.A., McEwen, M.M. and Keegan, R. (2006) Analgesia and anesthesia in camelids. Small Rumin. Res., 61: 227-233.
5. Carterall, W.A. (2001) Molecular mechanisms of gating and drug block of sodium channels. Sodium Channels and Neuronal Hyperexcitability. Novartis Foundation Symposium. Vol. 241. p206-225.
6. Saifzadeh, S., Pourjafar, M., Naghadeh, B.D. and Jalali, F.S. (2007) Caudal extradural analgesia with lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of lidocaine and xylazine in the Iranian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 51: 285-288.
7. Dehghani, S.N. and Bigham, A.S. (2009) Comparison of caudal epidural anesthesia by use of lidocaine versus a lidocaine-magnesium sulfate combination in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res., 70: 194-197.
8. Bigham, A.S., Habibian, S., Ghasemian, F. and Layeghi, S. (2010) Caudal epidural of lidocaine, tramadol, and lidocaine-tramadol for epidural anesthesia in cattle. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther., 33: 439-443.
9. Azari, O., Molaei, M.M. and Ehsani, A.H. (2014) Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 85: 1002.
10. Azari, O., Molaei, M.M. and Roshani, H. (2014) Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone and in combination with tramadol in dromedary camels. Indian J. Vet. Surg., 9: 27-32.
11. Atiba, A., Ghazy, A., Gomaa, N., Kamal, T. and Shukry, M. (2015) Evaluation of analgesic effect of caudal epidural tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Med. Int., 2015: Article ID: 575101, 6.
12. Meyer, H., Starke, A., Kehler, W. and Rehage, J. (2007) High caudal epidural anaesthesia with local anaesthetics or alpha(2)-agonists in calves. J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med., 54: 384-389.
13. Moulvi, B.A., Parrah, J.D., Kalim, M.O., Athar, H., Singh, M. and Baba, M.A. (2011) Comparative efficacy of lignocaine alone and in combination with Ketamine as epidural anaesthesia in cow calves. Vet. World, 4: 364-367.
14. DeRossi, R., Sampaio, B.F., Varela, J.V. and Juqueira, A.L. (2004) Perineal analgesia and haemodynamic effects of epidural administration of meperidine or hyperbaric bupivacaine in conscious horses. Can. Vet. J., 45: 42-47.
PMid:14992253 PMCid:PMC539226
15. Singh, V., Kinjavdekar, P. and Aithal, H.P. (2009) Effect of bupivacaine on epidural analgesia produced by xylazine or medetomidine in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Anaesth. Analg., 36: 77-85.
16. Araújo, M.A., Albuquerque, V.B., Deschk, M., Santos, G.G., Rodrigues, C.A., Oliva, V.N. and Santos, P.S. (2012) Cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of caudal epidurally administered ropivacaine in cattle. Vet. Anaesth. Analg., 39: 409-413.
17. Singh, P., Pratap, A.K., Kinjavdekar, P., Aithal, H.P., Singh, G.R. and Pathak, R. (2006) Xylazine, ketamine and their combination for lumbar epidural analgesia in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med., 53: 423-431.
18. Shekidef, M.H. and Saleh, S.Y. (2011) Effect of epidural administration of ketamine/xylazine and ketamine/medetomidine combination in dromedary camels. J. Camel Pract. Res., 18: 319-329.
19. Pagliosa, R.C., DeRossi, R., Costa, D.S. and Faria, F.J.C. (2015) Efficacy of caudal epidural injection of lidocaine, xylazine and xylazine plus hyaluronidase in reducing discomfort produced by electroejaculation in bulls. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 77: 1339-1345.
PMid:26097016 PMCid:PMC4667648
20. Marzok, M.A. and El-Khodery, S.A. (2016) Dose-dependent antinociceptive and sedative effects of epidural romifidine in cattle. Vet. Rec., 178: 140.
21. DeRossi, R., Ruzzon, R.H., Verde-Selva, A.B. and Bertoni, R.A. (2010) Evaluation of segmental dorsolumbar epidural analgesia with ketamine hydrochloride administered by use of nonstyletted multiple-port catheters via the caudal approach in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res., 71: 17-23.
22. Sirvinskas, E. and Laurinaitis, R. (2002) Use of magnesium sulfate in anesthesiology. Medicine, 38: 147-150.
23. Ghazy, A., Atiba, A., Shukry, M. and Kamal, T. (2015) Comparison of lidocaine and lidocaine-neostigmine for epidural analgesia in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Alex. J. Vet. Sci., 46: 177-181.
24. Alkan, M. and Kaya, K. (2014) Postoperative analgesic effect of epidural neostigmine following caesarean section. Hippokratia, 18: 44-49.
PMid:25125952 PMCid:PMC4103042
25. Marucio, R.L., Monteiro, E.R., Moroz, L.R. and Fantoni, D.T. (2014) Postoperative analgesic effects of epidural administration of neostigmine alone or in combination with morphine in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery of the pelvic limbs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 75: 956-963.
26. DeRossi, R., Módolo, T.J.C., Maciel, F.B. and Pagliosa, R.C. (2013) Efficacy of epidural lidocaine combined with tramadol or neostigmine on perineal analgesia in the horse. Equine Vet. J., 45: 497-502.