Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Research (Published online: 16-02-2016)

11. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India - D. G. Kalambhe, N. N. Zade, S. P. Chaudhari, S. V. Shinde, W. Khan and A. R. Patil

Veterinary World, 9(2): 176-181



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.176-181



D. G. Kalambhe: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

N. N. Zade: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

S. P. Chaudhari: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

S. V. Shinde: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

W. Khan: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;

A. R. Patil: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India;


Received: 11-08-2015, Revised: 24-12-2015, Accepted: 31-12-2015, Published online: 16-02-2016


Corresponding author: D. G. Kalambhe, e-mail:

Citation: Kalambhe DG, Zade NN, Chaudhari SP, Shinde SV, Khan W, Patil AR (2016) Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India, Veterinary World 9(2): 176-181.

Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012.

Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA). An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates.

Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs) with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%). A maximum sensitivity (80%) was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin.

Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health.

Keywords: antibiogram, Congo red binding assay, food animals, hemolysis, Salmonella Typhimurium.

1. Pegues, D.A., Oh, M.E. and Miller, S.I. (2005) Salmonella species, including Salmonella Typhi. In: Mandel, G.L., Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R., editors. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, New York. p2636-2654.
2. Baker, M.G., Thorns, C., Lopez, L.D., Garrett, N.K. and Nikol, C.M. (2007) A recurring Salmonellosis epidemic in New Zealand linked to contact with sheep. Epidemiol. Infect., 135: 76-83.
PMid:16740191 PMCid:PMC2870545
3. World Health Organization. (2006) 6th International Conference on Typhoid Fever and other Salmonellosis, Geneva.
4. Nyeleti, C., Molla, B., Hilderbandt, G. and Kleer, J. (2000) The prevalence and distribution of Salmonella in slaughter cattle, slaughterhouse personnel and minced beef in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr., 48: 19-24.
5. Molla, B., Alemayehmu, D. and Salah, W. (1997-2002) Sources and distribution of Salmonella serotypes isolated from food animals, slaughterhouse personnel and retail meat products in Ethiopia, 2003. Ethiop. J. Health Dev., 17: 63-70.
6. D'Aoust, J.Y. (1989) Salmonella. In: Doyle, M.P., editor. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
7. Nair, A., Balasaravanan, T., Malik, S.V.S., Mohan, V., Kumar, M., Vergis, J. and Deepak, B.R. (2015) Isolation and identification of Salmonella from diarrheagenic infants and young animals, sewage waste and fresh vegetables. Vet. World, 8(5): 669-673.
8. Maharjan, M., Joshi, V., Joshi, D.D. and Manandhar, P. (2006) Trends in the study of disease agents. Ann N Y Acad. Sci., 1081: 249-256.
9. Kshirsagar, D.P., Singh, S., Brahmbhatt, M.N. and Nayak, J.B. (2014) Isolation and molecular characterization of virulence-associated genes of Salmonella from buffalo meat samples in Western region of India. Israel J. Vet. Med., 69(4): 228-233.
10. Boonmar, S., Markvichitr, K., Chaunchom, S., Chanda, C. and Bangtrakulnonth, A. (2008) Salmonella prevalence in slaughtered buffaloes and pigs and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 70: 1345-1348.
11. Khan, J.A., Rathore, R.S., Khan, S. and Ahmad, I. (2013). Prevalence, characterization and detection of Salmonella spp. from various meat sources. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1(1S): 4-8.
12. Arslan, S. and Ayla, E. (2010) Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella species in retail meat products. J. Food Prot., 73(9): 10-63.
13. Rathod, K.S., Ambadkar, R.K., Zanjad, P.N., Deshmukh, V.V. and Raziuddin, M. (2004) Microbiological quality of chevon sold in Parbhani City. J. V.P.H., 2: 19-22.
14. Makwana, P.P., Nayak, J.B., Brahmbhatt, M.N. and Chaudhary, J.H. (2015) Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat), India, Vet. World, 8(3): 388-392.
15. Shashidhar, R., Srivastava, I. and Bandekar, J.R. (2011) Quantification of Salmonella in food samples from India using the MINI-MSRV MPN and modified MINI-MSRV MPN methods. J. Food Sci., 76(8): M564-M567.
16. Arvind, K., Khajuria, P. and Kaur, M. (2011) Tracking of pathogenic and spoilage microbes in mutton and chevon processing in retail markets of Jammu. Indian J. Small Rumin., 17(1): 74-77.
17. Wassie, M.A. (2004) A cross-sectional study on Salmonella in apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats at Addis Ababa and Modjo abattoirs, Ethiopia. Master thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
18. Chandra, M., Singh, B.R., Shankar, H., Agarwal, M., Agarwal, R.K., Sharma, G. and Babu, N. (2007) Prevalence of Salmonella antibodies among goats slaughtered for chevon in Bareilly (northern India). Prev. Vet. Med., 80: 1-8.
19. Moon, A.H. (2011) Studies on: Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species of polluted meat origin. Asiatic J. Biotechnol. Resour., 2(04): 447-453.
20. Kumar, T., Rajora, V.S. and Arora, N. (2013) Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India. Indian J. Med. Microbiol., 32(1): 99-101.
21. Yemisi, A., Alli Oyebode, T., Margaret, A. and Justina, J. (2011) Prevalence of Arcobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species in retail raw chicken, pork, beef and goat meat in Osogbo, Nigeria. Sierra Leone J. Biomed. Res., 3(1): 8-12.
22. Ejeta, G., Molla, B., Alemayehu, D. and Muckle, A. (2004) Salmonella serotypes isolated from minced meat beef, mutton and pork in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Rev. Med. Vet., 155(11): 547-551.
23. Letellier, A., Messier, S. and Quessy, S. (1999) Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in finishing Swine at Canadian abattoirs. J. Food Prot., 62(1): 22-25.
24. Andreshel, J.K., Sorensen, R. and Glensbjerg, M. (1991) Aspects of the epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica: A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 13(3): 231-237.
25. Kumara, P., Rao, J., Haribabuc, Y. and Manjunath, D. (2014) Microbiological quality of meat collected from municipal slaughter houses and retail meat shops from Hyderabad Karnataka region, India. APCBEE Proc., 8: 364-369.
26. El-Taib, K.A. (2011) Studies on virulence characters of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animal and human. Rep. Opin., 3(7): 37-43.
27. Agrawal, M., Chandra, M., Sharma, G. and Singh, B.R. (2005) A study on virulence markers of Indian strain of Salmonella Enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B from foods of animal origin. J. Food Sci. Technol., 42: 66-79.
28. Tiwari, R.P., Deol, K., Rishi, P. and Grewal, J.S. (2002) Factors affecting haemolysin production and Congo red binding in Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 98. J. Med. Microbiol., 51: 50.
29. Zade, N.N. and Karpe, A.G. (2010) Final scheme report on characterization of plasmid DNA of the bacteria from foods of animal origin. A Report Submitted to Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi. p11.
30. Singh, B.R., Agarwal, M., Chandra, M., Verma, M., Sharma, G., Verma, J.C. and Singh, V.P. (2010) Plasmid profile and drug resistance pattern of zoonotic Salmonella isolates from Indian buffaloes. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries., 4(8): 477-483.