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Research (Published online: 18-02-2016)

13. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab - Jaspal Singh Hundal, Simrinder Singh Sodhi, Aparna Gupta, Jaswinder Singh and Udeybir Singh Chahal

Veterinary World, 9(2): 186-191



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.186-191



Jaspal Singh Hundal: Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Simrinder Singh Sodhi: Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Aparna Gupta: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ropar, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Jaswinder Singh: Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Udeybir Singh Chahal: Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;


Received: 18-10-2015, Revised: 28-12-2015, Accepted: 09-01-2016, Published online: 18-02-2016


Corresponding author: Jaspal Singh Hundal, e-mail:

Citation: Hundal JS, Sodhi SS, Gupta A, Singh J, Chahal US (2016) Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab, Veterinary World 9(2): 186-191.

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab.

Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables.

Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies through dog bite (98.4%), need of post-exposure vaccination (96.8%), and annual vaccination of dogs (78%) were well-known facts but only 47.2% livestock owners were aware of the occurrence of abortion due to brucellosis and availability of prophylactic vaccine (67.6%) against it as a preventive measure. About 69.2% respondents belonged to low to medium knowledge level categories, whereas 30.8% respondents had high knowledge (p<0.05) regarding different aspects of zoonotic diseases. Age, education, and herd size had no significant effect on the knowledge level and awareness of farmers toward zoonotic diseases.

Conclusion: Therefore, from the present study, it may be concluded that there is a need to create awareness and improve knowledge of livestock farmers toward zoonotic diseases for its effective containment in Punjab.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge level, livestock farmers, risk factors, zoonotic diseases.

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