Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access


Review (Published online: 29-01-2016)

16. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle - A. Manimaran, A. Kumaresan, S. Jeyakumar, T. K. Mohanty, V. Sejian, Narender Kumar, L. Sreela, M. Arul Prakash, P. Mooventhan, A. Anantharaj and D. N. Das

Veterinary World, 9(1): 91-100

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.91-100

 

 

A. Manimaran: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; maranpharma@gmail.com

A. Kumaresan: Theriogenology Laboratory, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, India; ogkumaresan@gmail.com

S. Jeyakumar: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; jeyakumarsakthivel@gmail.com

T. K. Mohanty: Theriogenology Laboratory, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, India; mohanty.tushar@gmail.com

V. Sejian: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; drsejian@gmail.com

Narender Kumar: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; nklangyan@gmail.com

L. Sreela: ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India; sreela312@gmail.com

M. Arul Prakash: ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India; drarullpm@gmail.com

P. Mooventhan: ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India; agriventhan@yahoo.co.in

A. Anantharaj: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; cellsig2ananth@gmail.com

D. N. Das: Southern Regional Station, ICAR - National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru - 560 030, Karnataka, India; dndasndri@gmail.com

 

Received: 10-08-2015, Revised: 04-12-2015, Accepted: 12-12-2015, Published online: 29-01-2016

 

Corresponding author: S. Jeyakumar, e-mail: jeyakumarsakthivel@gmail.com


Citation: Manimaran A, Kumaresan A, Jeyakumar S, Mohanty TK, Sejian V, Kumar N, Sreela L, Prakash MA, Mooventhan P, Anantharaj A, Das DN (2016) Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle, Veterinary World 9(1): 91-100.



Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

Keywords: cute phase proteins, bovine uterine infections, pro-inflammatory cytokines, negative energy balance, transition period.



1. Lewis, G.S. (1997) Symposium: Health problems of the postpartum cow. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 984-994.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76024-7
 
2. Sheldon, I.M. and Dobson, H. (2004) Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 82-83: 295-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.006
PMid:15271461
 
3. LeBlanc, S.J., Osawa, T. and Dubuc, J. (2011) Reproductive tract defense and disease in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology, 76(9): 1610-1618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.07.017
PMid:21890187
 
4. LeBlanc, S.J. (2008) Production diseases of the transition cow. Postpartum uterine diseases and dairy herd reproductive performance: A review. Vet. J., 176(1): 102-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.019
PMid:18328749
 
5. Rantibioticn, S.R.P. and Bawa, S.J.S. (1977) Incidence of pre and postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Haryana Vet., 16: 99-101.
 
6. Pal, S. (2003) Investigation on health disorder in dairy cattle and buffaloes during pre and postpartum period. M.V.Sc. Thesis Submitted to NDRI, Karnal.
 
7. Williams, E.J., Fischer, D.P., Pfeiffer, D.U., England, G.C.W., Noakes, D.E., Dobson, H. and Sheldon, I.M. (2005) Clinical evaluation of postpartum vaginal mucus reflects uterine bacterial infection and the immune response in cattle. Theriogenology, 63: 102-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.03.017
PMid:15589277
 
8. Dubuc, J., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E., Walton, J.S. and LeBlanc, S.J. (2011a) Impact of postpartum uterine diseases on milk production and culling in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(3): 1339-1346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3758
PMid:21338799
 
9. Plaizier, J.C., King, G.J., Dekkers, J.C. and Lissemore, K. (1997) Estimation of economic values of indices for reproductive performance in dairy herds using computer simulation. J. Dairy Sci., 80(11): 2775-2783.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76240-4
 
10. Mateus, L., Costa, L.L.D., Bernardo, F. and Silva, J.R. (2002) Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 37(1): 31-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0531.2002.00317.x
 
11. Kim, I.H., Na, K.J. and Yang, M.P. (2005) Immune responses during the peripartum period in dairy cows with postpartum endometritis. J. Reprod. Dev., 51: 757-764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1262/jrd.17036
PMid:16210780
 
12. Galv„o, K.N., Santos, N.R., Galvao, J.S. and Gilbert, R.O. (2011) Association between endometritis and endometrial cytokine expression in postpartum Holstein cows. Theriogenology, 76: 290-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.02.006
PMid:21496904
 
13. Hammon, D.S., Evjen, I.M., Dhiman, T.R., Goff, J.P. and Walters, J.L. (2006) Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 113: 21-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.022
PMid:16740320
 
14. Humblet, M.F., Guyot, H., Boudry, B., Mbayahi, F., Hanzen, C., Rollin, F. and Godeau, J.M. (2006) Relationship between haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and clinical status in a survey of dairy herds during a 6-month period. Vet. Clin. Pathol., 35: 188-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2006.tb00112.x
PMid:16783711
 
15. Kovac, G., Popelkova, M., Tkacikova, L., Burdova, O. and Ihnat, O. (2007) Interrelationship between somatic cell count and acute phase proteins in serum and milk of dairy cows. Acta Vet. Brno., 76: 51-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200776010051
 
16. Chan, J.P.W., Chang, C.C., Chin, C., Hsu, W.L., Liu, W.B. and Chen, T.H. (2010) Association of increased serum acute-phase protein concentrations with reproductive performance in dairy cows with postpartum metritis. Vet. Clin. Pathol., 39(1): 72-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2009.00182.x
PMid:19747184
 
17. Huzzey, J.M., Duffield, T.F., LeBlanc, S.J., Veira, D.M., Weary, D.M. and von Keyserlingk, M.A.G. (2009) Short communication: Haptoglobin as an early indicator of metritis. J. Dairy Sci., 92(2): 621-625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1526
PMid:19164673
 
18. Huzzey, J.M., Nydam, D.V., Grant, R.J. and Overton, T.R. (2011) Associations of prepartum plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, fecal cortisol metabolites, and nonesterified fatty acids with postpartum health status in Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(12): 5878-5889.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3391
PMid:22118079
 
19. Dubuc, J., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E., Walton, J.S. and LeBlanc, S.J. (2010) Risk factors for postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93(12): 5764-5771.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3429
PMid:21094748
 
20. Eckersall, P.D. and Bell, R. (2010) Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Vet. J., 185(1): 23-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.009
PMid:20621712
 
21. Ceciliani, F., Ceron, J.J., Eckersall, P.D. and Sauerwein, H. (2012) Acute phase proteins in ruminants. J. Proteomics, 75(14): 4207-4231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2012.04.004
PMid:22521269
 
22. Gilbert, R.O., Santos, N.R., Galvao, K.N., Brittin, S.B. and Roman, H.B. (2007) The relationship between postpartum uterine bacterial infection (BI) and subclinical endometritis (SE). J. Dairy Sci., 90(1): 469.
 
23. Beutler, B., Hoebe, K., Du, X. and Ulevitch, R.J. (2003) How we detect microbes and respond to them: Toll-like receptors and their transducers. J. Leuk. Biol., 74: 479-485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0203082
 
24. Fischer, C., Drillich, M., Odau, S., Heuwieser, W., Einspanier, R. and Gabler, C. (2010) Selected pro-inflammatory factor transcripts in bovine endometrial epithelial cells are regulated during the oestrous cycle and elevated in case of subclinical or clinical endometritis. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 22: 818-829.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD09120
PMid:20450834
 
25. Zerbe, H., Schuberth, H.J., Engelke, F., Frank, J., Klug, E. and Leibold, W. (2003) Development and comparison of in vivo and in vitro models for endometritis in cows and mares. Theriogenology, 60: 209-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)01376-6
 
26. Zerbe, H., Obadnik, C., Leibold, W. and Schuberth, H.J. (2001) Influence of Escherichia coli and Arcanobacteriumpyogenes isolated from bovine puerperal uteri on phenotypic and functional properties of neutrophils. Vet. Microbiol., 79: 351-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00368-0
 
27. Herath, S., Lilly, S.T., Santos, N.R., Gilbert, R.O., Goetze, L., Bryant, C.E., White, J.O., Cronin, J. and Sheldon, I.M. (2009) Expression of genes associated with immunity in the endometrium of cattle with disparate postpartum uterine disease and fertility. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol., 7: 55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-7-55
PMid:19476661 PMCid:PMC2702306
 
28. Chapwanya, A., Meade, K.G., Doherty, M.L., Callanan, J.J., Mee, J.F. and O'Farrelly, C. (2009) Histopathological and molecular evaluation of Holstein-Friesian cows postpartum: Toward an improved understanding of uterine innate immunity. Theriogenology, 71: 1396-1407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.01.006
PMid:19233457
 
29. Ishikawa, Y., Nakada, K., Hagiwara, K., Kirisawa, R., Iwai, H., Moriyoshi, M. and Sawamukai, Y. (2004) Changes in interleukin-6 concentration in peripheral blood of pre-and post-partum dairy cattle and its relationship to postpartum reproductive diseases. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 66(11): 1403-1408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.66.1403
 
30. Islama, R., Kumar, H., Nandi, S. and Rai, R.B. (2013) Determination of anti-inflammatory cytokine in periparturient cows for prediction of postpartum reproductive diseases. Theriogenology, 79: 974-979.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.01.018
PMid:23434356
 
31. Kasimanickam, R.K., Kasimanickam, V.R., Olsen, J.R., Jeffress, E.J., Moore, D.A. and Kastelic, J.P. (2013) Associations among serum pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol., 11: 103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-11-103
PMid:24209779 PMCid:PMC3830449
 
32. Sordillo, L.M., Pighetti, G.M. and Davis, M.R. (1995) Enhanced production of bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha during the periparturientperiod. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 49: 263-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(95)05465-0
 
33. Trevisi, E., Amadori, M., Bakudila, A.M. and Bertoni, G. (2009) Metabolic changes in dairy cows induced by oral, low-dose interferon-alpha treatment. J. Anim. Sci., 87: 3020-3029.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1178
PMid:19502505
 
34. Bradford, B.J., Mamedova, L.K., Minton, J.E., Drouillard, J.S. and Johnson. B.J. (2009) Daily injection of tumor necrosis factor-α increases hepatic triglycerides and alters transcript abundance of metabolic genes in lactating dairy cattle. J. Nutr., 139: 1451-1456.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.108233
PMid:19549751
 
35. Loor, J.J. and Everts, R.E. (2007) Nutrition-induced ketosis alters metabolic and signaling gene networks in liver of periparturient dairy cows. Physiol. Genomics., 32(1): 105-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2007
PMid:17925483
 
36. Beam, S.W. and Butler, W.R. (1998) Energy balance, metabolic hormones, and early postpartum follicular development in dairy cows fed prilled lipid. J. Dairy Sci., 81: 121-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75559-6
 
37. Wathes, D.C, Cheng, Z., Chowdhury, W., Fenwick, M.A, Fitzpatrick, R., Morris, D.G, Patton, J. and Murphy, J.J. (2009) Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Physiol. Genomics., 39: 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00064.2009
PMid:19567787 PMCid:PMC2747344
 
38. Galvao, K.N., Flaminio, M.J.B., Brittin, S.B., Sper, R., Fraga, M., Caixeta, L., Ricci, A., Guard, C.L., Butler, W.R. and Gilbert, R.O. (2010) Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2926-2937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2551
PMid:20630210
 
39. Giuliodori, M.J., Magnasco, R.P., Becu-Villalobos, D., Lacau-Mengido, I.M., Risco, C.A. and De la Sota R.L. (2013) Clinical endometritis in an Argentinean herd of dairy cows: Risk factors and reproductive efficiency. J. Dairy Sci., 96(1): 210-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5682
PMid:23182361
 
40. Bell, M.J. and Roberts, D.J. (2007) The impact of uterine infection on a dairy cow's performance. Theriogenology, 68: 1074-1079.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.08.010
PMid:17869332
 
41. Rossi, F., Righi, F., Romanelli, S. and Quarantelli, A. (2008) Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows under negative energy balance conditions. Ann. Fac. Med. Vet. Parma., 28: 173-180.
 
42. Silva, E., Gaivao, M., Leitao, S., Antibioticro, A. and Costa, L.L. (2008) Blood COX-2 and PGES gene transcription during the peripartum period of dairy cows with normal puerperium or with uterine infection. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 35: 314-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2008.07.001
PMid:18692980
 
43. Cairoli, F., Battocchio, M., Veronesi, M.C., Brambilla, D., Conserva, F., Eberini, I., Wait, R. and Gianazza, E. (2006) Serum protein pattern during cow pregnancy: Acute-phase proteins increase in the Peripartum period. Electrophoresis, 27: 1617-1625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200500742
PMid:16548048
 
44. Petersen, H.H., Nielsen, J.P. and Heegaard, P.M.H. (2004) Application of acute phase protein measurement in veterinary clinical chemistry. Vet. Res., 35: 163-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004002
PMid:15099494
 
45. Eckersall, P.D. and Conner, J.G. (1988) Bovine and canine acute phase proteins. Vet. Res., 12(2-3): 169-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00362798
 
46. Alsemgeest, S.P.M., Kalsbeek, H.C., Wensing, T., Koeman, J.P., Van Ederen, A.M. and Gruys, E. (1994) Concentrations of SAA (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) as parameters of inflammatory diseases in cattle. Vet. Q., 16: 21-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.1994.9694410
PMid:8009814
 
47. Gruys, E., Ederen, A.M., Alsemgeest, S.P.M., Kalsbeek, H.C. and Wensing, T. (1993) Acute phase protein values in blood of cattle as indicator of animals with pathological process. Arch. Lebensmittel Hyg., 44(5): 107-111.
 
48. Horadagoda, A., Eckersall, P.D., Hodgson, J.C., Gibbs, H.A. and Moon, G.M. (1994) Immediate responses in serum TNF-α and acute phase protein concentrations to infection with Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in calves. Res. Vet. Sci., 57: 129-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(94)90094-9
 
49. Horadagoda, N.U., Knox, K.M.G., Gibbs, H.A., Reid, S.W.J., Horadagoda, A., Edwards, S.E.R. and Eckersall, P.D. (1999) Acute phase proteins in cattle: Discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. Vet. Rec., 144: 437-441.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.144.16.437
 
50. Pyorala, S. (2000) Hirvonen's Thesis on Acute Phase Response in Dairy Cattle. Finnland: University of Helsinki.
 
51. Murata, H., Shimada, N. and Yoshioka, M. (2004) Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: An overview. Vet. J., 168: 28-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1090-0233(03)00119-9
 
52. Eckersall, P.D., Young, F.J., McComb, C., Hogarth, C.J., Safi, S., Weber, A., McDonald, T., Nolan, A.M. and Fitzpatrick, J.L. (2001) Acute phase proteins in serum and milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Vet. Rec., 148(2): 35-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.148.2.35
 
53. Suojala, L., Orro, T., Jarvinen, H., Saatsi, J. and Pyorala, S. (2008) Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intra-mammary infections in dairy cows. Acta Vet. Scand., 50: 18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-50-18
PMid:18554387 PMCid:PMC2440372
 
54. Wenz, J.R., Fox, L.K., Muller, F.J., Rinaldi, M., Zeng, R. and Bannerman, D.D. (2010) Factors associated with concentrations of select cytokine and acute phase proteins in dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2458-2470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2819
PMid:20494154
 
55. Larsen, T., Rontved, C.M., Ingvartsen, K.L., Vels, L. and Bjerring, M. (2010) Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis. Animal, 4: 1672-1679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731110000947
PMid:22445120
 
56. Krakowski, L. and Zdzisińska, B. (2007) Selected cytokines and acute phase proteins in heifers during the ovarian cycle course and in different pregnancy periods. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulway., 51: 31-36.
 
57. Smith, B.I., Donovan, G.A., Risco, C., Littell, R., Young, C., Stanker, L.H. and Elliott, J. (1998b) Comparison of various antibiotic treatments for cows diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis. J. Dairy Sci., 81(6): 1555-1562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75721-2
 
58. Hirvonen, J., Huszenicza, G., Kulcsar, M. and Pyorala, S., (1999) Acute-phase response in dairy cows with acute postpartum metritis. Theriogenology, 51: 1071-1083.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(99)80012-0
 
59. Jeremejeva, J., Orro, T., Waldmann, A. and Kask, K. (2012) Treatment of dairy cows with PGF2α or NSAID, in combination with antibiotics, in cases of postpartum uterine inflammation. Acta Vet. Scand., 54: 45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-54-45
PMid:22883439 PMCid:PMC3502358
 
60. Mordark, R. (2009) Postpartum serum concentration of haptoglobin in cows with fetal membranes retention. Cattle Pract., 17: 100-102.
 
61. Williams, E.J., Fischer, D.P., Noakes, D.E., England, G.C., Rycroft, A., Dobson, H. and Sheldon, I.M. (2007) The relationship between uterine pathogen growth density and ovarian function in the postpartum dairy cow. Theriogenology, 68: 549-559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04.056
PMid:17574659 PMCid:PMC2702080
 
62. Baumann, H. and Gauldie, J. (1994) The acute phase response. Immunol. Today, 15: 74-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(94)90137-6
 
63. Regassa, F. and Noakes, D.E. (1999) Acute phase protein response of ewes and the release of PGFM in relation to uterine involution and the presence of intrauterine bacteria. Vet. Rec., 144: 502-506.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.144.18.502
PMid:10358889
 
64. Sheldon, I.M., Noakes, D.E., Rycroft, A.N. and Dobson, H. (2001) Acute phase protein responses to uterine bacterial contamination in cattle after calving. Vet. Rec., 148(6): 172-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.148.6.172
 
65. Heidarpour, M., Mohri, M., Fallah Rad, A.H., Shahreza, F.D. and Mohammadi, M. (2012) Acute-phase protein concentration and metabolic status affect the outcome of treatment in cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis. Vet. Rec., 171: 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.100947
PMid:22865113
 
66. Schneider, A., CorrÍa, M.N. and Butler, W.R. (2013) Acute phase proteins in Holstein cows diagnosed with uterine infection. Res. Vet. Sci., 95(1): 269-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.02.010
PMid:23540606
 
67. Kovac, G., Tothova, C., Nagy, O., Seidel, H. and Konvicna, J. (2009) Acute phase proteins and their relation to energy metabolites in dairy cows during the pre- and postpartal period. Acta Vet. Brno., 78: 441-447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200978030441
 
68. Young, C.R., Eckersall, P.D., Saini, P.K. and Stanker, L. (1995) Validation of immunoassays for bovine haptoglobin. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 49: 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(95)05454-E
 
69. Alsemgeest, S.P.M., Vant Clooster, G.A.E., Van Miert A.S.J., Hulskamp-Koch, C.K. and Gruys, E. (1996) Primary bovine hepatocytes in the study of cytokine induced acute-phase protein secretion in vitro. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 53: 179-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(96)05602-4
 
70. Mordak, R. (2008) Usefulness of haptoglobin for monitoring the efficiency of therapy of fetal membrane retention in cows. Med. Wet., 64(4A): 434-443.
 
71. Chan, J.P., Chu, C.C., Fung, H.P., Chuang, S.T., Lin, Y.C., Chu, R.M. and Lee, S.L. (2004) Serum haptoglobin concentration in cattle. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 66(1): 43-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.66.43
 
72. Sabedra, D.A. (2012) Thesis on Serum Haptoglobin as an Indicator for Calving Difficulties and Postpartal Diseases in Transition Dairy Cows. An Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to Oregon State University.
 
73. Burke, C.R., Meier, S., McDougall, S., Compton, C., Mitchell, M. and Roche, J.R. (2010) Relationships between endometritis and metabolic state during the transition period in pasture-grazed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 5363-5373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3356
PMid:20965352
 
74. Huzzey, J.M., Mann, S., Nydam, D.V., Grant, R.J. and Overton, T.R. (2015) Associations of peripartum markers of stress and inflammation with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med., 120(3-4): 291-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.04.011
PMid:25957974
 
75. Krausea, A.R.T., Pfeifer, L.F.M., Montagnera, P., Weschenfeldera, M.M., Schweglera, E., Limaa, M.E., Xavierb, E.G., Braunera, C.C., Schmittc, E., Del Pinoa, F.A.B., Martinsa, C.F., CorrÍaa, M.N. and Schneidera, A. (2014) Associations between resumption of postpartum ovarian activity, uterine health and concentrations of metabolites and acute phase proteins during the transition period in Holstein cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 145: 8-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.12.016
PMid:24444884
 
76. Nightingale, C.R., Sellers, M.D. and Ballou, M.A. (2015) Elevated plasma haptoglobin concentrations following parturition are associated with elevated leukocyte responses and decreased subsequent reproductive efficiency in multiparous Holstein dairy cows. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 164: 16-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.12.016
PMid:25613776
 
77. Gabler, C., Fischer, C., Drillich, M., Einspanier, R. and Heuwieser, W. (2010) Time-dependent mRNA expression of selected pro-inflammatory factors in the endometrium of primiparous cows postpartum. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol., 8: 152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-8-152
PMid:21176181 PMCid:PMC3016299
 
78. Lecchi, C., Avallone, G., Giurovich, M.M., Roccabianca, P. and Ceciliani, F. (2009) Extra hepatic expression of the acute phase protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in normal bovine tissues. Vet. J., 180(2): 256-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.027
PMid:18294879
 
79. Rahman, M.M. and Lecchi, C. (2010) Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: Local expression in bovine extrahepatic tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 137: 28-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.04.006
PMid:20452064
 
80. Ghasemi, F., Gonzalez-Cano, P., Griebel, P.J. and Palmer, C. (2012) Proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in endometrial cytobrush samples harvested from cows with and without subclinical endometritis. Theriogenology, 78(7): 1538-1547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.06.022
PMid:22925636
 
81. Galvao, K.N., Felippe, M.J., Brittin, S.B., Sper, R., Fraga, M., Galv„o, J.S., Caixeta, L., Guard, C.L., Ricci, A. and Gilbert, R.O. (2012) Evaluation of cytokine expression by blood monocytes of lactating Holstein cows with or without postpartum uterine disease. Theriogenology, 77(2): 356-372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.08.008
PMid:21924475
 
82. Loyi, T., Kumar, H., Nandi, S., Mathapati, B.S., Patra, M.K. and Pattnaik, B. (2013) Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in endometrial tissue of buffaloes with clinical and sub-clinical endometritis. Res. Vet. Sci., 94: 336-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.09.008
PMid:23040421
 
83. Chapwanya, A., Meade, K.G., Doherty, M.L., Callanan, J.J. and O'Farrellya, C. (2013) Endometrial epithelial cells are potent producers of tracheal antimicrobial peptide and serum amyloid A3 gene expression in response to E. coli stimulation. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 151(1-2): 157-162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.042
PMid:23200820
 
84. Heinrich, P.C., Behrmann, I., Muller-Newen, G., Schaper, F. and Graeve, L. (1998) Interleukin-6-type cytokine signalling through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway. Biochem. J., 334: 297-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/bj3340297
PMid:9716487 PMCid:PMC1219691
 
85. Agrawal, A., Cha-Molstad, H., Samols, D. and Kushner, I. (2003) Over expressed nuclear factor-kappa B can participate in endogenous C-reactive protein induction, and enhances the effects of C/EBP beta and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Immunology, 108: 539-547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2567.2003.01608.x
PMid:12667216 PMCid:PMC1782914
 
86. Jensen, L.E. and Whitehead, A.S. (1998) Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response. Biochem. J., 334: 489-503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/bj3340489
PMid:9729453 PMCid:PMC1219714
 
87. Betts, J.C., Cheshire, J.K., Akira, S., Kishimoto, T. and Woo, P. (1993) The role of NF-kappa B and NF-IL6 trans activating factors in the synergistic activation of human serum amyloid A gene expression by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6. J. Biol. Chem., 268: 25624-25631.
PMid:8244997
 
88. Edbrooke, M.R., Foldi, J., Cheshire, J.K., Li, F., Faulkes, D.J. and Woo, P. (1991) Constitutive and NF-kappa B-like proteins in the regulation of the serum amyloid A gene by interleukin-1. Cytokine, 3: 380-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1043-4666(91)90041-B
 
89. Lee, Y.M., Miau, L.H., Chang, C.J. and Lee, S.C. (1996) Transcriptional induction of the alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene by synergistic interaction of two alternative activator forms of AGP/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP beta) and NF-kappa B or Nopp140. Mol. Cell. Biol., 16: 4257-4263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.16.8.4257
PMid:8754826 PMCid:PMC231424
 
90. Hagihara, K., Nishikawa, T., Sugantibioticta, Y., Song, J., Isobe, T., Taga, T. and Yoshizaki, K. (2005) Essential role of STAT3 in cytokine-driven NF-kappaB-mediated serum amyloid A gene expression. Genes Cells, 10: 1051-1063.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2005.00900.x
PMid:16236134
 
91. Quinton, L.J., Jones, M.R., Robson, B.E. and Mizgerd, J.P. (2009) Mechanisms of the hepatic acute-phase response during bacterial pneumonia. Infect. Immu., 77: 2417-2426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01300-08
PMid:19289507 PMCid:PMC2687329
 
92. Bode, J.G., Albrecht, U., Haussinger, D., Heinrich, P.C. and Schaper, F. (2012) Hepatic acute phase proteins-regulation by IL-6-and IL-1-type cytokines involving STAT3 and its crosstalk with NF-kB-dependent signaling. Eur. J. Cell Biol., 91: 496-505.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.09.008
PMid:22093287