Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular
lesions in shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by
Leishmania infantum -
Simona Di Pietro, Valentina Rita Francesca Bosco, Chiara Crinò,
Francesco Francaviglia and Elisabetta Giudice
Veterinary World, 9(6): 633-637
Simona Di Pietro:
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, Polo
Universitario Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy; email@example.com
Valentina Rita Francesca Bosco:
DVM, Veterinary Medical Centre S. Chiara, Viale Vittorio Veneto,
96014 Floridia (SR), Italy; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, Polo
Universitario Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy; email@example.com
DVM, Local Public Health Unit (ASP) of Palermo, Via G. Cusmano
24, 90141, Palermo, Italy; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and
Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno
d’Alcontres 31, 98168 Messina, Italy; email@example.com
Received: 24-11-2015, Accepted: 19-05-2016, Published online:
Simona Di Pietro, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Di Pietro S, Bosco VRF, Crinò C, Francaviglia F, Giudice E
(2016) Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in
shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by
Leishmania infantum, Veterinary World, 9(6): 633-637.
The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was
evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a
highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period
prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to
leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies
referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same
endemic area over a 3-year period.
Materials and Methods:
All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The
diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological
(immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative
polymerase chain reaction) tests.
The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with
leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular
lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed
in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions
due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs).
In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved
the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent
ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it
occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often
occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48).
In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic
antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases
(48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than
1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was
necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of
them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy
(16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by
canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of
ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an
endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more
frequent in client-owned dogs than in shelter dogs. The onset of
keratouveitis during or after antiprotozoal treatment could be
attributed to the treatment or to a recurrence of the systemic
form. The post-treatment uveal immune reaction, already observed
in humans, could explain the difference in the frequency of
keratouveitis between client-owned and shelter dogs, which have
never been treated.
dog, follow-up, leishmaniasis, ocular lesions, post-treatment
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