Veterinary World

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Research (Published online: 05-03-2016)

2. Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming - S. W. Lee, K. Y. Sim, W. Wendy and A. K. Zulhisyam

Veterinary World, 9(3): 231-234

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.231-234

 

 

S. W. Lee: Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia; leeseongwei@yahoo.com

K. Y. Sim: Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia; sk.yuen@umk.edu.my

W. Wendy: School of Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia; wendy@umt.edu.my

A. K. Zulhisyam: Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia; zulhisyam.a@umk.edu.my

 

Received: 06-06-2015, Revised: 08-01-2016, Accepted: 23-01-2016, Published online: 05-03-2016

 

Corresponding author: S. W. Lee, e-mail: leeseongwei@yahoo.com


Citation: Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK (2016) Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming, Veterinary World, 9(3): 231-234.



Aim: This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. pellucida leaf extract against A. hydrophila was determined through two-fold microbroth dilution method. The plant extract was screening for its active compound using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and the effectiveness of P. pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent was evaluated. The experimental fish were fed with medicated feed at three different concentrations (25 mg/kg, PP-25; 50 mg/kg, PP-50; and 100 mg/kg, PP-100) of P. pellucida leaf extract for 1 week before they were intraperitoneally exposed to A. hydrophila. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine the value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish that received medicated feed, and the percentage of total cumulative mortality of the experimental fish were observed at the end of the experiment.

Results: The results showed that the major bioactive compound is phytol (40%), and the MIC value was 31.5 mg/L. The value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish which received medicated feed (PP-25, 0.1280.014 optical density [OD]; PP-50, 0.1320.003 OD; and PP-100, 0.1710.02 OD) was found significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to fish did not receive medicated feed (0.00 OD). Whereas, percentage cumulative mortality of fish from all groups of fish received medicated feed (PP-25, 18.03.2%; PP-50, 18.22.8%; and PP-100, 17.71.8%) were found significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to a group of fish did not receive medicated feed (83.21.4%).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated the huge potential of P. pellucida leaf extract as natural immunostimulator agent for aquaculture uses.

Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, immunostimulator, motile aeromonad septicemia, red hybrid tilapia.



1. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M., Wendy, W., Zarol, A. and Nadirah, M. (2009) Multiple antibiotic resistance and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery. Agric. Sci. China, 8(6): 740-745.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60273-4
 
2. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M., Wendy, W., Nadirah, M. and Faizah, S.H. (2009) Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from organs of American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) cultured in Malaysia. J. Ven. Anim. Toxins. Incl. Trop. Dis., 15(2): 353-358.
 
3. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M. and Wendy, W. (2010) Bacterial flora from a healthy freshwater Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fingerling hatchery with emphasis on their antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance pattern. Vet. Arch., 80(3): 411-420.
 
4. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M. and Wendy, W. (2010) Bacteria associated with golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) broodstock from commercial hatchery in Malaysia with emphasis on their antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. Front. Agric. China, 4(2): 332-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11703-010-0106-y
 
5. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M., Wendy, W. and Nadirah, M. (2010) Antibiogram and heavy metal resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from moribund cage cultured silver catfish (Pangasius sutchi) and red hybrid tilapia (Tilapia sp.). Front. Agric. China, 4(1): 116-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11703-009-0085-z
 
6. Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., Julius, Y.F.S., Desy, F.S. and Ahmad, A.I. (2010) Characterization of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer property and chemical composition of Murdannia bracteata leaf extract. Pharmacol. Online, 3: 930-936.
 
7. Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., Julius, Y.F.S. and Desy, F.S. (2011) Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant property and chemical composition of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract. Acta Med. Iran., 49(10): 670-674.
 
8. Lee, S.W. and Najiah, M. (2008) Inhibition of Edwardsiella tarda and other fish pathogens by Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) extract. Am. Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 3(5): 692-696.
 
9. Lee, S.W. and Wendy, W. (2013) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals. Iran. J. Microbiol., 5(2): 147-152.
 
10. Shelby, R.A., Klesius, P.H., Shoemaker, C.A. and Evans, J.J. (2002) Passive immunization of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), with anti Streptococcus iniae whole sera. J. Fish Dis., 25: 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.2002.00327.x
 
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12. Xu, S., Li, N., Ning, M.M., Zhou, C.H., Yang, Q.R. and Wang, M.W. (2006) Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida. J. Nat. Prod., 69(2): 247-250.
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13. Kumar, P.P., Kumaravel, S. and Lalitha, C. (2010) Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. Afr. J. Biochem. Res., 4(7): 191-195.
 
14. Nwokocha, C.R., Owu, D.U., Kinlocke, K., Murray, J. and Delgoda, R. (2012) Possible Mechanism of action of the hypotensive effect of Peperomia pellucida and Interactions between human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Med. Aromat. Plants, 1: 105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000105
 
15. Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., Julius, Y.F.S. and Desy, F.S. (2011) Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer properties and chemical composition of Malaysian Andrographis paniculata leaf extract. Pharmacol. Online, 2: 996-1002.
 
16. Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., Julius, Y.F.S. and Desy, F.S. (2011) Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer property and chemical composition of Michelia champaca seed and flower extracts. S. J. Pharm. Sci., 4(1): 19-24.
 
17. Lee, S.W., Najiah, M., Wendy, W. and Nadirah, M. (2009) Chemical composite on and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites. Front. Agric. China, 3(3): 332-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11703-009-0052-8
 
18. Lee, S.W. and Najiah, M. (2009) Antimicrobial property of 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid isolated from Citrus microcarpa extract. Agric. Sci. China, 8(6): 740-745.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60273-4
 
19. Stewart, A., Vaughn, O., Scott, L., Steve, H., Carolyn, F. and James, W. (2008) Measurement of the Innate Cellular Immune Response of Hybrid Striped Bass and Rainbow Trout. Bulletin for the Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) Publication, Washington, DC.