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Review (Published online: 20-05-2016)

10. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update - Biswa Ranjan Maharana, Anup Kumar Tewari, Buddhi Chandrasekaran Saravanan and Naduvanahalli Rajanna Sudhakar

Veterinary World, 9(5): 487-495



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.487-495



Biswa Ranjan Maharana: Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India;

Anup Kumar Tewari: Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Buddhi Chandrasekaran Saravanan: Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Naduvanahalli Rajanna Sudhakar: Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;


Received: 07-10-2015, Accepted: 06-04-2016, Published online: 20-05-2016


Corresponding author: Biswa Ranjan Maharana, e-mail:

Citation: Maharana BR, Tewari AK, Saravanan BC, Sudhakar NR (2016) Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update, Veterinary World, 9(5): 487-495.

Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents.

Keywords: Anaplasma, Babesia, chemotherapy, hemoprotozoa, molecular diagnosis, Theileria, Trypanosoma.

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