Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access


Research (Published online: 06-05-2016)

3. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram - Rajat Buragohain

Veterinary World, 9(5): 444-449

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.444-449

 

 

Rajat Buragohain: Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India; drrajat57@gmail.com

 

Received: 14-10-2015, Accepted: 28-03-2016, Published online: 06-05-2016

 

Corresponding author: Rajat Buragohain, e-mail: drrajat57@gmail.com


Citation: Buragohain R (2016) Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram, Veterinary World, 9(5): 444-449.



Aim: The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6th week.

Results: Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3rd week where it reduced significantly (p<0.05) at and above 6% TDLM in the ration. The average body weight gain decreased significantly (p<0.05) above 6% TDLM inclusion. The average body weights at 7th, 14th, and 21st day of age reduced significantly (p<0.05) from 4% to 10% TDLM inclusion level but was statistically non-significant up to 4% TDLM at 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of age. Body weight at 42nd day of age was 1624.7230.52, 1616.6617.84, 1592.6019.24, 1404.6117.76, 1188.2917.67, and 1054.3318.81 gin TDLM-0, TDLM-2, TDLM-4, TDLM-6, TDLM-8, and TDLM-10, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients decreased with increased inclusion level of TDLM. The digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract were significantly higher in TDLM-0, but crude fiber digestibility was comparable without any significant difference among the groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42nd day of age was 2.170.15, 2.170.15, 2.130.13, 2.460.16, 2.660.11, and 3.960.10 for TDLM-0, TDLM-2, TDLM-4, TDLM-6, TDLM-8, and TDLM-10, respectively, was statistically non-significant up to 4% TDLM inclusion level.

Conclusion: Considering the insignificant effects on growth rate, FCR, and body weight at 42nd day of age, it was concluded that TDLM could be incorporated up to 4% level as substitute of the conventional feed ingredients for broilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

Keywords: broiler, growth, Mizoram, nutrient digestibility, Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal.



1. Abu, O.A., Olaleru, I.F. and Omojola, A.B. (2015) Carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers fed cassava peel and leaf meals as replacements for maize and soyabean meal. J. Agric. Vet. Sci., 8(3): 41-46.
 
2. Adeyemo, I.A.and Sani, A. (2013) Physical appearance and organoleptic properties of poultry meat fed Aspergillus niger hydrolyzed cassava peel meal based diet. Int. J. Agric. Policy Res.,1(6): 166-171.
 
3. Teye, M., Apori, S.O. and Ayeida, A.A. (2015) Carcass parameters and sensory characteristics of broiler chicken fed diets containing palm (Elaeis guineensis) kernel oil residue. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 4(6): 1030-1038.
 
4. Bolu, S.A., Ojo, V., Oyeleke, B.A., Ajiboye, A.O., Baa Sambo, A. and Oluyemi, O. (2009) Effects of Alphamune G on the performance, blood chemistry and histology of broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8: 32-34.
 
5. Buragohain, R. (2013) Nutritive and non-nutritive composition of wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia). Indian Vet. J., 90(5): 106-109.
 
6. Sawmliana, M. (2013) The Book of Mizoram Plants (Includes wild Animals, Birds Etc.). 2nd ed. P. Zakhuma, Chanmari West, Aizawl, Mizoram. p252.
 
7. Ewan, R.C. (1989) Predicting the energy utilization of diets and feed ingredients by pigs. In: Van der Honing, Y. and Close, W.H., editors. Energy Metabolism, European Association of Animal Production, Bulletin No.43. Pudoc Wageningen, Netherlands, p271-274.
 
8. Buragohain, R. (2013) Nutritive and non-nutritive composition of wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia). Indian Vet. J., 90(5): 106-109.
 
9. Ekeocha, A.H. (2012) Utilization of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia Diversifolia, Hemsley. A. Gray) leaf meal on the average production cost and returns of broiler chicks. J. Rec. Adv. Agric., 1(2): 34-42.
 
10. Ekeocha, A.H. and Afolabi, K.D. (2012) Carcass characteristics of broilers fed Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) leaf meal-based diets. J. Anim. Prod. Adv., 2(5): 271-276.
 
11. BIS. (2002) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Bureau of Indian Standard, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, India.
 
12. AOAC. (2006) Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed., Vol. I. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
 
13. Talapatra, S.K., Ray, S.C. and Sen, K.C. (1940). Estimation of P, Cl, Ca, Na, and K in food stuffs. Indian J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husbandry, 10: 243-246.
 
14. Makkar, H.P.S., Bluemmel, M., Borowy, N.K. and Becker, K. (1993) Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J. Sci. Food Agric., 61: 161-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740610205
 
15. Porter, L.J., Hrstich, L.N. and Chan, B.G. (1986) The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyaniding and delphinidin. Phytochemistry, 25: 223-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94533-3
 
16. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Method. Oxford and IBH Pub., Co., New Delhi.
 
17. Odunsi, A.A., Farinu, G.O., Akinola, J.O. and Togun, V.A. (1999) Growth, carcass characteristics and body composition of broiler chicken fed wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) forage meal. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest., 2: 205-211.
 
18. Togun, V.A., Farinu, G.O. and Olabanji, R.O. (2006) Feeding graded levels of wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A. Gray) meal in replacement of maize at pre-pubertal age, negatively impacts on growth and morphormetric characteristics of the genitalia of Anak 2000 broiler cooks at their pubertal age. World Appl. Sci. J., 1(2): 115-121.
 
19. Kass, M.L., Van Soest, P.J., Pond, W.G., Lewis, B. and Mc Dowell, R.E. (1980) Utilization of dietary fibre from alfalfa by growing swine. 1. Apparent digestibility of diet components in specific segments of the gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci., 50: 175-191.
 
20. Akinmutimi, A.H., Ojewola, G.C., Abasiekong, S.F. and Onwudike, O.C. (2008) Evaluation of toasted, cooked and Akanwu-cooked sword bean meal in place of soya bean meal in broiler starter diets. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7(5): 480-486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.480.486
 
21. Obun, C.O. (2013) Impact of raw tallow Detarium microcarpum (Guill and Sperr) seed meal on performance and blood parameters in broilers. Iran. J. Appl. Anim. Sci., 3(2): 289-294.
 
22. Helsper, J.P., Hoogenidjk, F.G., Van Norel, J.M. and Burger, M.K. (1993) Anti-nutritional factors in faba bean (Vicia Taba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41(7): 1058-1061.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00031a008
 
23. Prince, M.L., Butler, L.G., Roger, J.G. and Featherstone, W.R. (1980) Overcoming the nutritional harmful effects of tannin in sorghum grain by treatment with inexpensive chemicals. J. Agric. Food Chem., 27: 441-445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf60222a052