Veterinary World

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Research (Published online: 10-11-2016)

9. Biocomputational analysis of evolutionary relationship between toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors genes - Rabia Bhardwaj, Chandra Shekhar Mukhopadhyay, Dipak Deka, Ramneek Verma, P. P. Dubey and J. S. Arora

Veterinary World, 9(11): 1218-1228



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1218-1228



Rabia Bhardwaj: School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Chandra Shekhar Mukhopadhyay: School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Dipak Deka: School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

Ramneek Verma: School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

P. P. Dubey: Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;

J. S. Arora: School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India;


Received: 03-05-2016, Accepted: 01-10-2016, Published online: 10-11-2016


Corresponding author: Chandra Shekhar Mukhopadhyay, e-mail:

Citation: Bhardwaj R, Mukhopadhyay CS, Deka D, Verma R, Dubey PP, Arora JS (2016) Biocomputational analysis of evolutionary relationship between toll-like receptor and nucleotidebinding oligomerization domain-like receptors genes, Veterinary World, 9(11): 1218-1228.

Aim: The active domains (TIR and NACHT) of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors [NLR], respectively) are the major hotspots of evolution as natural selection has crafted their final structure by substitution of residues over time. This paper addresses the evolutionary perspectives of the TLR and NLR genes with respect to the active domains in terms of their chronological fruition, functional diversification, and species-specific stipulation.

Materials and Methods: A total of 48 full-length cds (and corresponding peptide) of the domains were selected as representatives of each type of PRRs, belonging to divergent animal species, for the biocomputational analyses. The secondary and tertiary structure of the taurine TIR and NACHT domains was predicted to compare the relatedness among the domains under study.

Results: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results indicated that these host-specific PRRs formed entirely different clusters, with active domains of NLRs (NACHT) evolved earlier as compared to the active domains of TLRs (TIR). Each type of TLR or NLR shows comparatively less variation among the animal species due to the specificity of action against the type of microbes.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that there has been no positive selection acting on the domains associated with disease resistance which is a fitness trait indicating the extent of purifying pressure on the domains. Gene duplication could be a possible reason of genesis of similar kinds of TLRs (virus or bacteria specific).

Keywords: bioinformatics, domain, evolution, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, selection pressure, toll-like receptor.

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