Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Research (Published online: 20-10-2016)

12. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes - Ashwani Kumar, Narinder Singh Saini, Jitender Mohindroo, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Vandana Sangwan and Naresh Kumar Sood

Veterinary World, 9(10): 1113-1120



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1113-1120



Ashwani Kumar: Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;

Narinder Singh Saini: Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;

Jitender Mohindroo: Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;

Balbir Bagicha Singh: School of Public Health and Zoonoses, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;

Vandana Sangwan: Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;

Naresh Kumar Sood: Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India;


Received: 14-05-2016, Accepted: 31-08-2016, Published online: 20-10-2016


Corresponding author: Ashwani Kumar, e-mail:

Citation: Kumar A, Saini NS, Mohindroo J, Singh BB, Sangwan V, Sood NK (2016) Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes, Veterinary World, 9(10): 1113-1120.

Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness.

Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool.

Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.

Keywords: bovine, echinococcus cyst, liver, lung, radiography, ultrasound.

1. Moro, P. and Schantz, P.M. (2009) Echinococcosis: A review. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 13(2): 125-133.
2. Cardona, G.A. and Carmena, D. (2013) A review of global prevalence, molecular epidemiology and economics of cystic echinococcosis in production animals. Vet. Parasitol., 192(1): 10-32.
3. Verma, Y. and Swami, M. (2009) Prevalence and pathology of hydatidosis in buffalo liver. Buffalo Bull., 28(4): 207-211.
4. Jayathilakan, N., Basith, S.A., John, L., Chandaran, N.D.L. and Raj, G.D. (2010) Development and evaluation of flow through technique for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in cattle. Vet Arch., 80(5): 549-559.
5. Singh, B.B., Sharma, R., Sharma, J.K. and Juyal, P.D. (2010) Parasitic zoonoses in India: An overview. Rev. Sci. Tech., 29(3): 629-637.
6. Singh, B.B., Sharma, J.K., Ghatak, S., Sharma, R., Bal, M.S., Tuli, A. and Gill, J.P.S. (2012) Molecular epidemiology of Echinococcosis from food producing animals in north India. Vet. Parasitol., 186(3-4): 503-506.
7. Al-Yaman, F.M., Assaf, L., Hailat, N. and Abdel-Hafez, S.K. (1985) Prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered animals from North Jordan. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 79(5): 501-506.
8. Ansari, L.M. (2005) A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Shiraz, Iran, based on abattoir data during 1999-2004. Vet. Parasitol., 133(1): 119-123.
9. Acioz, M., Celiksoz, A., Ozcelik, S. and Degerli, S. (2008) Prevalence of cyst hydatid in slaughtered cattle between April and May 2005 in Sivas. Turk Parazitol Derg, 32(3): 205-207.
10. Khan, M.A., Tanveer, A., Younus, M., Shafiq, M., Saeed, K., Ammaram, H.T. and Gill, T.J. (2010) Prevalence, organ specificity and economic impact of hydatidosis in the cattle slaughtered in the Lahore Abattoir. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci., 4(2): 38-40.
11. Salih, M., Degefu, H. and Yohannes, M. (2011) Infection rates, cyst fertility and larval viability of hydatid disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Borena, Kereyu and Harar areas of Ethiopia. Glob. Vet., 7(6): 518-522.
12. Lahmar, S., Chehida, F.B., Petavy, A.F., Hammou, A., Lahmar, J., Ghannay, A., Gharbi, H.A. and Sarciron, M.E. (2007) Ultrasonographic screening for cystic echinococcosis in sheep in Tunisia. Vet. Parasitol., 143(1): 42-49.
13. Njoroge, E.M., Mbithi, P.M., Gathuma, J.M., Wachira, T.M., Magambo, J.K. and Zehle, E. (2000) Application of ultrasonography in the prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in North Western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, Southern Sudan. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 67(4): 251-255.
14. Hussein, A.H. and Elrashidy, M. (2014) Evaluation of ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool for hepatic hydatid cysts in sheep. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 38: 409-417.
15. Besbes, L.G., Haddad, S., Meriem, C.B., Hammami, S., Nauri, A. and Gueddiche, M.N. (2010) Giant hydatid lung cysts: About two pediatric cases. Respir. Med. CME, 3: 174-178.
16. Reef, V.B. Boy, M.G., Reid, C.F. and Elser, A. (1991) Comparison between diagnostic ultrasonography and radiography in the evaluation of horses and cattle with thoracic disease: 56 cases (1984-1985). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 198(12): 2112-2118.
17. Ramirej, S., Lester, G.D. and Roberts, G.R. (2004) Diagnostic contribution of thoracic ultrasonography in 17 foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, 45(3): 172-176.
18. Nigam, J.M., Singh, A.P. and Mirakhur, K.K. (1980) Radiographic diagnosis of bovine thoracic disorders. Mod. Vet. Pract., 61(8): 1021-1025.
19. Braun, U. (2008) Clinical findings and diagnosis of thrombosis of the caudal vena cava in cattle. Vet. J., 175(2): 118-125.
20. Mohamed, T. (2010) Clinico-pathological and ultrasonographic findings in 40 water buffaloes (B. bubalis) with traumatic pericarditis. Vet. Rec., 167(2): 119-124.
21. Kumar, A., Saini, N.S., Mohindroo, J. and Sood, N.K. (2012) Ultrasonographic features of normal heart and liver in relation to diagnose pericarditis in bovine. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 82(12): 1489-1494.
22. Maxson, A.D., Wachira, T.M., Zeyhle, E.E., Fine, A., Mwangi, T.W. and Smith, G. (1996) The use of ultrasound to study the prevalence of hydatid cysts in the right lung and liver of sheep and goats in Turkana, Kenya. Int. J. Parasitol., 26(11): 1335-1338.
23. Sage, A.M., Wachira, T.M., Zeyhle, E.E., Weber, E.P., Njoroge, E. and Smith, G. (1998) Evaluation of diagnostic ultrasound as a mass screening technique for the detection of hydatid cysts in the liver and lung of sheep and goat. Int. J. Parasitol., 28(6): 349-353.
24. Guarnera, E.A., Zanzottera, E.M., Pereyra, H. and Franco, A.J. (2001) Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ovine cystic echinococcosis. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, 42(4): 352-354.
25. Mohamed, T. and Oikawa, S. (2011) Ultrasonographic evaluation of cattle and buffaloes with respiratory disease. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 43(9): 803-810.
26. Sangwan, V., Saini, N.S., Kumar, A., Chandra, M., Randhawa, C.S. and Singh, S.S. (2013) Rhodococcus induced pneumonia and lung abscessation in a foal. Indian Vet. J., 90(4): 99-101.
27. Shamsul Islam, A.W.M. (1985) Hydatidosis in buffaloes in Bangladesh. Rev. Sci. Tech. Int. Epiz., 1(2): 435-441.
28. Czermak, B.V., Akhan, O., Hiemetzberger, R., Zelger, B., Vogel, W., Jaschke, W., Rieger, M., Kim, S.Y. and Lim, J.H. (2008) Echinococcosis of the liver. Abdom. Imaging, 33(2): 133-143.
29. Turgut, A.T., Akhan, O., Bhatt, S. and Dogra, V.S. (2008) Sonographic spectrum of hydatid disease. Ultrasound Q., 24(1): 17-29.
30. Braun, U., Pusterla, N. and Wild, K. (1995) Ultrasonographic findings in 11 cows with a hepatic abscess. Vet. Rec., 137(12): 284-290.
31. Braun, U. (2009) Ultrasonography of the liver in cattle. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract., 25: 591-609.
32. Carpio, M.D., Mercapide, C.H., Salvitti, J.C., Uchiumi, L., Sustercic, J., Panomarenko, H., Moguilensky, J., Herrero, E., Talmon, G., Volpe, M., Araya, D., Mujica, G., Calabro, A., Mancini, S., Chiosso, C., Labanchi, J.L., Saad, R., Goblirsch, S., Brunetti, E. and Larrieu, E. (2012) Early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cystic echinoccocosis in remote rural areas in Patagonia: Impact of ultrasound training of non-specialists. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 6: e444.
33. Bartholomot, B., Vuitton, D.A., Harraga, S., Shi, D.Z., Giraudoux, P., Barnish, G., Wang, Y.H., Macpherson, C.N.L. and Craig, P.S. (2002) Combined ultrasound and serological screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in Central China. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 66(1): 23-29.
34. Gavidia, C.M., Gonzalez, A.E., Zhang, W., McManus, D.P., Lopera, L., Ninaquispe, B., Garcia, H.H., Rodriguez, S., Verastegui, M., Calderon, C., Pan, W.K.Y. and Gilman, R.H. (2008) Diagnosis of cystic echinococcus, Central Peruvian Highlands. Emerging Infect. Dis., 14(2): 260-265.
PMid:18258119 PMCid:PMC2600205
35. Kalinbacak, A., Ozkanlar, Y., Kirmizigul, A.H., Pekkaya, S. and Guzel, M. (2002) Ultrasonogram of the hydatid cyst in the liver of a cow. Indian Vet. J., 79(10): 1072-1074.