Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access


Research (Published online: 09-09-2016)

5. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria - Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, Oluwayemisi Folashade Daniel and Sunday Ayobami Ishola

Veterinary World, 9(9): 948-954

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.948-954

 

 

Isaac Olufemi Olatoye: Pathogenomic and Proteomic Laboratory, Paul Allen School for Global Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; olatoye@vetmed.wsu.edu

Oluwayemisi Folashade Daniel: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; folashadedaniels@gmail.com

Sunday Ayobami Ishola: Analytical Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Science Laboratory Technology, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Science, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; techjoyadisco@yahoo.com

 

Received: 07-04-2016, Accepted: 26-07-2016, Published online: 09-09-2016

 

Corresponding author: Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, e-mail: olatoye@vetmed.wsu.edu


Citation: Olatoye IO, Daniel OF, Ishola SA (2016) Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria, Veterinary World, 9(9): 948-954.



Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State.

Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue.

Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.220.61, 8.240.50 and 7.60.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study.

Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers’ extension education on alternatives to antibiotic prophylaxis, veterinary prescriptions and withdrawal periods are recommended to prevent residues.

Keywords: milk and milk products, Oyo state, penicillin residues, public health.



1. Osotimehin, K.O., Tijani, A.A. and Olukomogbon, E.O. (2006) An economic analysis of small scale dairy milk processing in Kogi State, Nigeria. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 18(11). Available from: http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd18/11/osot18157.htm. Accessed on 02-04-2016.
 
2. Wu, G. (2010) Functional amino acids in growth, reproduction, and health. Adv. Nutr., 1: 31-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.110.1008
PMid:22043449 PMCid:PMC3042786
 
3. Iro, I. (2011) The Fulani Milk Maid and Problems of Dairying in Nigeria. Available from: http://www.gamji.com.fulani11.htm. Accessed on 10-02-2015.
 
4. Foramfera. (2012) Milk production in Nigeria; the opportunities. Available from: http://www.foramfera.com/. . Accessed on 10-05-2016
 
5. Olatoye, I.O. and Ogundipe, G.A.T. (2013) Quantitative analysis of oxytetracycline residue in beef and chicken meat from cities of southwest Nigeria. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr., 61: 39-48.
 
6. Diarra, M.S. and Malouin, F. (2014) Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives. Front. Microbiol., 5: 282-291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00282
PMid:24987390 PMCid:PMC4060556
 
7. Padol, A.R., Malapure, C.D., Domple, V.D. and Kamdi, B.P. (2015) Occurrence, public health implications and detection of antibacterial drug residues in cow milk. Environ. We Int. J. Sci. Technol., 10: 7-28.
 
8. Nisha, A.R. (2008) Antibiotics residues - A global health hazard. Vet. World, 1(12): 375-377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2008.375-377
 
9. Salkind, A.R., Cuddy, P.G. and Foxworth, J.W. (2001) Is this patient allergic to penicillin? An evidence-based analysis of the likelihood of penicillin allergy. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 285: 2498-2505.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2498
PMid:11368703
 
10. Dewdney, J.M. and Edwards, R.G. (1984) Penicillin hypersensitivity is milk a significant hazard? A review. J R Soc. Med., 77(10): 866-877.
PMid:6208359 PMCid:PMC1440262
 
11. Samanidou, V.F., Nisyriou, S.A. and Papadoyannis, I.N. (2007) Residue analysis of penicillins in food products of animal origin by HPLC: A review. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol., 30: 1145-1204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826070701274320
 
12. Olson, J.C. and Sanders, A.C. (1975) Penicillin in milk and milk products: Some regulatory and public health considerations. J. Milk Food Technol., 10: 570-633.
 
13. Darwish, W.S., Eldaly, E.A., El-Abbasy, M.T., Ikenaka, Y., Nakayama, S. and Ishizuka, M. (2013) Antibiotic residues in food: The African scenario. Jpn. J. Vet. Res., 61: S13-S22.
PMid:23631148
 
14. CAC/GL, CAC. (2009) Codex Alimentarius Commission Maximum Residue Limits for Veterinary Drugs in Foods. Updated as at the 32nd Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, (July 2009), CAC/MRL 02-2009. p1-36.
 
15. Shaikh, B. and Moats, W.A. (1993) Liquid-chromatographic analysis of antibacterial drug residues in food-products of animal origin. J. Chromatogr., 643: 369-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80573-Q
 
16. Adetunji, V.O. and Olaoye, O.O. (2012) Detection of β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and amoxicillin) residues in goat milk. Nat. Sci., 10: 60-64.
 
17. Aning, K.G., Donkor, E.S., Omore, A., Nurah, G.K., Osafo, E.L. and Staal, S. (2007) Risk of exposure to marketed milk with antimicrobial drug residues in Ghana. Open Food Sci. J., 1: 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874256400701010001
 
18. Fonseca, G.P., Cruz, A.G., Faria, J.A., Silva, R., Moura, M.R.L. and Carvalho, L.M.J. (2009) Antibiotic residues in Brazilian UHT milk: A screening study. Cien. Technol. Aliment Camp., 29(2): 451-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612009000200035
 
19. Yamaki, M., Berruga, M.I., Althas, R.L., Molina, M.P. and Molina, A. (2004) Occurrence of antibiotic residues in milk from manchega ewe dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci., 87(10): 3132-3137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73448-7
 
20. Zorraquino, M.A., Althaus, R.L., Roca, M. and Molina, M.P. (2011) Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk. J. Food Prot., 74(2): 311-315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-297
PMid:21333154
 
21. Ghidini, S.M., Zanardi, E., Varisco, G. and Chizzolini, R. (2003) Residues of - Lactam antibiotics in bovine milk: Confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography tends mass spectrometry after microbial assay screening. Food Addit. Contam., 20: 528-534.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265203031000098696
PMid:12881125
 
22. Khaskheli, M., Malik, R.S., Arain, M.A., Soomro, A.H. and Arain, H.H. (2008) Detection of β-lactam antibiotic residues in marketed residues. Pak. J. Nutr., 7(5): 682-685.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.682.685
 
23. Addo, K.K., Mensah, G.I., Aning, K.G., Nartey, N., Nipah, G.K., Bonsu, C., Akyeh, M.L. and Smits, H.L. (2011) Microbiological quality and antibiotic residues in informally marketed raw cow milk within the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Trop. M ed. Int. Health, 16(2): 227-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02666.x
PMid:21070512