Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

 

Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ


Open Access


Research (Published online: 10-01-2017)

5. M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats - Parul Singh, Narendra Singh Jadon, Deepti Bodh and Manjul Kandpal

Veterinary World, 10(1): 22-28

 

 

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.22-28

 

Parul Singh: Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India.

Narendra Singh Jadon: Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India.

Deepti Bodh: Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India.

Manjul Kandpal: Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India.

 

Received: 30-06-2016, Accepted: 13-12-2016, Published online: 10-01-2017

 

Corresponding author: Deepti Bodh, e-mail: deeptibodh@yahoo.in


Citation: Singh P, Jadon NS, Bodh D, Kandpal M (2017) M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats, Veterinary World, 10(1): 22-28.



Aim: The aim of this study was to establish M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats and to study the effect of gender and body weight (BW) on these parameters.

Materials and Methods: A total of 18, clinically healthy, adult Pantja goats of either sex, aged 2-4 years and weighing 10-44 kg were included in the study. Echocardiographic examination was performed in the standing unsedated animal. All measurements were made from the right parasternal long-axis left ventricular outflow tract view of the heart. The following parameters were recorded: Left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and systole, interventricular septal thickness at diastole and systole, left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) thickness at diastole and systole, end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, fractional shortening, ejection fraction, percent systolic thickening of interventricular septum, percent systolic thickening of LVPW, cardiac output, left atrial (LA) diameter at diastole and systole, aortic (AO) root diameter at diastole and systole, LA/AO, LA posterior wall thickness at diastole and systole, left ventricular ejection time, DE amplitude, EF slope, AC interval and e-point to septal separation.

Results: This study demonstrated specific reference ranges of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in healthy Pantja goats. Normal echocardiographic values obtained in Pantja goats were quite different from other goat breeds. Gender had no influence on echocardiographic parameters, while high correlations were found between most echocardiographic parameters and BW.

Conclusion: The echocardiographic values obtained in the study may serve as a reference for future studies in this breed, for cardiovascular disease diagnosis and for utilizing the goat as a model for cardiac disorders in humans.

Keywords: echocardiography, goats, heart disease, M-mode, Pantja.



1. Laus, F., Copponi, I., Cerquetella, M. and Fruganti, A. (2011) Congenital cardiac defect in a pygmy goat (Capra hircus). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 35(6): 471-475.
 
2. Buczinski, S., Pinard, J., Ferrouillet, C. and Veillette, M. (2012) Echocardiographic findings in a goat with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic parasitic pneumonia. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd., 152: 81-85.
https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281.a000018
PMid:20127650
 
3. Remes, J., van Brakel, T.J., Bolotin, G., Garber, C., de Jong, M.M., van der Veen, F.H. and Maessen, J.G. (2008) Persistent atrial fibrillation in a goat model of chronic left atrial overload. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 136(4): 1005-1011.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.05.015
PMid:18954643
 
4. Acorda, J.A., Ong, R.A.F. and Maligaya, R.L. (2005) Ultrasonographic features of the heart in Philippine native goats (Capra hircus). Philipp. J. Vet. Med., 42: 66-74.
 
5. Hallowell, G.D., Potter, T.J. and Bowen, I.M. (2012) Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats. BMC Vet. Res., 8: 181.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-181
PMid:23017011 PMCid:PMC3574009
 
6. Leroux, A.A., Moonen, M.L., Farnir, F., Sandersen, C.F., Deleuze, S., Salciccia, A. and Amory, H. (2012) Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats. Vet. Rec., 170(6): 154.
https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.100192
 
7. Olsson, K., Hansson, A., Hydbring, E., von Walter, L.W. and Häggstrom, J. (2001) A serial study of heart function during pregnancy, lactation and the dry period in dairy goats using echocardiography. Exp. Physiol., 86(1): 93-99.
https://doi.org/10.1113/eph8602078
 
8. Steininger, K., Berli, A.S., Jud, R. and Schwarzwald, C.C. (2011) Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and effect of general anesthesia. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd., 153(12): 553-564.
https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281/a000273
PMid:22139947
 
9. Patni, M., Singh, S.K., Singh, D.V., Palod, J., Kumar, A., Singh, M.K. and Sathapathy, S. (2016) Studies on body weight, body measurements and scrotal morphology in local Pantja goats. Indian J. Anim. Res., 50(1): 105-111.
 
10. Vandana, Palod, J., Singh, D.V., Singh, S.K. and Kumar, B. (2014) Production traits of Pantja goat under farm conditions. Int. J. Basic Appl. Agric. Res., 12(3): 423-424.
 
11. Vandana, Palod, J., Singh, D.V., Kumar, B. and Singh, S.K. (2015) Growth pattern and mortality rate of kids of Pantja goat under farm condition. Vet. Sci. Res. J., 6(1): 32-35.
https://doi.org/10.15740/HAS/VSRJ/6.1/32-35
 
12. Thomas, W.P., Gaber, C.E., Jacobs, G.J., Kaplan, P.M., Lombard, C.W., Moise, N.S and Moses, B.L. (1993) Recommendations for standards in transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography in the dog and cat. Echocardiography Committee of the Specialty of Cardiology, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. J. Vet. Intern. Med., 7: 247-252.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1993.tb01015.x
PMid:8246215
 
13. Teicholz, L.E., Kreulen, T., Herman, M.V. and Gorlin, R. (1976) Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations: Echocardiographic-angiographic correlation in presence or absence of synergy. Am. J. Cardiol., 37: 7-11.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(76)90491-4
 
14. Kienle, R.D. (1998) Echocardiography. In: Kittleson, M.D. and Kienle, R.D., editors. Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Mosby, St. Louis. p95-117.
 
15. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods. 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, USA. p505.
 
16. Bodh, D. (2014) Evaluation of Cardiac Function in Spitz, Labrador Retrievers and Non-Descript Dogs with Special Reference to Doppler Parameters. Thesis, Ph.D., Deemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar, India.
 
17. Feigenbaum, H. (1981) Echocardiography. 3rd ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
PMCid:PMC1273323
 
18. Bodh, D., Hoque, M., Saxena, A.C., Gugjoo, M.B., Kumar, V. and Pawde, A.M. (2014) Echocardiographic features of occult dialated cardiomyopathy in Labrador retrievers. Indian J. Vet. Surg., 35(2): 134-137.
 
19. Acorda, J.A., Gregoria, M.A. and Pajas, A.M.G. (2015) M-mode echocardiographic values in male and female Philippine sheep (Ovis aries) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) by age and status of lactation and pregnancy. Philipp. J. Vet. Med., 52(1): 11-20.
 
20. Saxena, A.C. (2008) Studies on the measurement of reference ranges of echocardiogaphic indices and related cardiac parameters in Indian Spitz breed of dogs. Thesis, M.V.Sc. Deemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar, India.
 
21. Poser, H., Semplicini, L., De Benedictis, G.M., Gerardi, G., Contiero, B., Maschietto, N., Valetio, E., Milanesi, O., Semplicini, A. and Bernardini, D. (2013) Two-dimensional, M-mode and Doppler-derived echocardiographic parameters in sedated healthy growing female sheep. Lab. Anim., 47(3): 194-202.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0023677213486895
PMid:23760962
 
22. Gugjoo, M.B., Hoque, M., Saxena, A.C., Zama, M.M.S. and Dey, S. (2014) Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 15(4): 341-346.
PMid:27175128 PMCid:PMC4789210