Article history: Received: 24-11-2016, Accepted: 19-05-2017, Published online: 06-07-2017
Corresponding author: Amol Rokde
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Sengar A, Shrivastav AB, Singh KP, Rokde A (2017) Noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India, Veterinary World, 10(7): 748-751.
Aim: This study was conducted to know the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 374 fecal samples from wild herbivores (Chital Axis axis - 123, Sambar Rusa unicolor - 94, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus - 86, and Chinkara Gazella bennettii - 71) and 284 fecal samples of domestic herbivores (cattle - 118, buffalo - 78, and goat - 88) were collected from common grazing land and adjoining area of tiger reserve. Detailed coprological examination for the presence of parasitic eggs/oocysts by direct smear examination, standard sedimentation, and floatation techniques was performed.
Results: Fecal samples (n=374) of four different species of wild herbivores were screened. Out of which, 55.61% (n=208) were positive for parasitic infection. Among them, 13.10% (n=49) were positive for mixed parasitic infection of two or more parasite and 42.5% (n=159) were found positive for single parasitic infection. A total of 284 fecal samples of domestic animals were screened from adjoining areas of the tiger reserve. Out of which, 66.54% (n=189) were positive for parasitic infections, out of which 19.71% (n=56) were positive for mixed infection of two or more parasites, and 46.83% (n=133) were found positive for single parasitic infection.
Conclusion: Wild herbivores at Panna Tiger Reserve were exposed to parasites including some that are known to be pathogenic; majority of wild animals had mixed infection of Eimeria spp., Trichuris spp., Moniezia spp., Amphistome, Strongyloides spp., Balantidium spp., and Fasciola spp.
Keywords: free ranging wild herbivores, gastrointestinal parasites, Panna Tiger Reserve.
1. Morse, S.S., Mazet, J.A.K., Woolhouse, M., Parrish, C.R., Carroll, D., Karesh, W.B., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., Lipkin, W.I. and Daszak,P. (2012) Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis. Lancet,380(9857): 1956-1965. [Crossref]
2. Jones, K.E., Patel, N. and Levy, M.(2008) Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature,451: 990-994. [Crossref]
3. Shrivastav, A.B. (2001) Wildlife health-a new discipline essential for tiger conservation programme. IntasPolivet,2(2): 134-136.
4. Correa, S.R. andPassos, E.C. (2001) Wild animals and public health. In: Fowler, M.E., Cubas, Z.S., editors. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Iowa University Press, Ames. p493-499. [Crossref]
5. Thawait, V.K., Maiti, S.K. and Dixit, A.A. (2014) Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Vet. World, 7(7): 448-445. [Crossref]
7. Bengis, R.G., Leighton, F.A., Fischer, J.R., Artois, M. andMorner, T. (2004) Therole of emerging and re-emerging zoonosesscientific and technical review world.Organ. Anim. Health,23(2): 497-511.
8. Williams, E.S., Yuill, T., Artois, M., Fischer, J. andHaigh, S.A. (2002) Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. Rev. Sci. Tech.,21(1):139-157. [Crossref]
9. Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. and Hyatt, A.D. (2000) Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife-threats to biodiversity and human health. Science,287(5452):443-449. [Crossref]
10. Fikru, R., Teshale, S., Reta, D. andYosef, K. (2006) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med.,4(1):51-57.
11. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982) Helminths, Arthopods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th ed. Bailliere and Tindal, London.
12. Sloss, M.W., Kemp, R.L. and Zajac, A.M. (1994) Veterinary Clincal Parasitolgy. 6th ed. International Book Distrubuting Co., Lucknow, India. p191.
13. Mandal, P., Jayathangaraj, M.G., John, L., Latha, B.R. and Raman, M. (2002) Prevalence of helminthic infection in free ranging chital (Axis axis) at Mudumalaiwildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu. XIII National Congress of Veterinary Parasitology, 14-16th February, Kolkata.
14. Singh, S., Shrivastav, A.B. and Sharma, R.K. (2009)The epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasitism and body condition in free ranging herbivores. J. Threat. Taxa,1(10): 535-537. [Crossref]
15. Kock, R. (2014) Drivers of disease emergence and spread: Is wildlife to blame? On-derstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 81(2): 1-4. [Crossref]
16. Voyles, J., Kilpatrick, A.M., Collins, J.P., Fisher, M.C., Frick, W.F., McCallum, H., Willis, C.K., Blehert, D.S., Murray, K.A., Puschendorf, R., Rosenblum, E.B., Bolker, B.M., Cheng, T.L., Langwig, K.E., Lindner, D.L., Toothman, M., Wilber, M.Q. and Briggs, C.J. (2015) Moving beyond too little, too late: Managing emerging in-factious diseases in wild populations requires international policy and partnerships.Ecohealth,12(3):404-407. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. Mir, A.Q., Dua, K., Singla, L.D., Sharma, S. and Singh, M.P. (2016) Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animalds in BirMotiBagh mini zoo (Deer park), Patiala Punjab. Vet. World, 9(6): 540-543. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
18. Holsback, L., Cardoso, M.J.L., Fagnani, R. and Patelli, T.H.C. (2013) Natural infection by endo-parasites among free-living wild animals. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 22(2): 302-306. [Crossref] [PubMed]19. Allwin, B., Balakrishnan, S., Kumar, N.V., Jayathangaraj, M.G., Vedamanickam, S. and Gopal, S.(2016)Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Gaur (Bosgaurus) and domestic cattle at interface zones of the Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. J. Vet.Sci. Technol., 7(1): 1-6.