Article history: Received: 08-08-2017, Accepted: 20-10-2017, Published online: 21-11-2017
Corresponding author: Nadeem Shabir
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Bhat SA, Malik AA, Ahmad SM, Shah RA, Ganai NA, Shafi SS, Shabir N (2017) Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review, Veterinary World, 10(11): 1361-1366.
Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.
Keywords: animal breeding, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /Cas9, genome editing, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nucleases.
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