Article history: Received: 15-06-2017, Accepted: 30-08-2017, Published online: 29-09-2017
Corresponding author: K. M. Alsaad
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Alsaad KM, Alautaish HHN, Alamery MAY (2017) Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq, Veterinary World, 10(9): 1143-1148.
Aim: The study was conducted in Basrah, Iraq, to diagnose congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus (AKAV) in calves.
Materials and Methods: Affected animals (42 calves) are about 2-27 days old from both sexes show signs of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Eight clinically healthy newborn calves were considered as controls. Diagnosis of AKAV was confirmed using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: Results show that all affected calves were found seropositive. Furthermore, a significant increase in total leukocyte count in diseased calves due to a significant increase in the absolute lymphocyte number indicated in affected calves than in controls. Moreover, a significant increase in sedimentation rate of erythrocytes was also encountered in diseased calves than in controls. In addition, a significant increase in haptoglobin level and fibrinogen was also detected.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of AKAV infection of Basrah Governorate, Iraq, will provide useful epidemiological information for cattle and other domesticated animals. Therefore, abortion could be prevented and controlled.
Keywords: Akabane virus, arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly, calves, Iraq.
1. Kirkland, P. and Macarthur, E. (2008) Akabane disease. In: Foreign Animal Diseases. 7th ed. Boca Raton, FL: USAHA. p117-123.
2. Constable, P.D., Hinchcliff, K.W., Done, S.H. and Grunberg, W. (2017) Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Horses. 11th ed. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3. Lee, J.K., Park, J.S., Choi, J.H., Park, B.K., Lee, B.C., Hwang, W.S, Kim, J.H., Jean, Y.H., Haritani, M., Yoo, H.S. and Kim, D.Y. (2002) Encephalomyelitis associated with Akabane virus infection in adult cows. Vet. Pathol., 39: 269-273. [Crossref] [PubMed]
5. Abu Elziem, E.M., Al-Afaleq, A.I., Mellor, P.S, El-Bashir, A.M. and Hassanein, M.M. (1998) Study of Akabane infection in Saudi Arabia by the use if the sentinel ruminants. J. Comp. Pathol., 119: 473-478. [Crossref]
7. Jun, Q., Qingling, M., Zaichao, Z., Kuojun, C., Jingsheng, Z., Minxing, M. and Chuangfu, C. (2012) A serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle and sheep in Northwest China. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 44(8): 1817-1820. [Crossref] [PubMed]
8. Uchida, K., Murakami, T., Sueyoshi, M., Tsuda, T., Inai, K., Acorda, J.A., Yamaguchi, R. and Tateyama, S. (2000) Detection of Akabane viral antigens in spontaneous lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis in cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 12(6): 518-524. [Crossref] [PubMed]
9. Oakley, L., Kittelberger, R. and Green, O. (2011) Arbovirus surveillance program. Surveillance, 38(3): 28.
10. Prasad, V.D., Hari Krishna, N.V.V., Sreenu, M. and Thangadurai, R. (2010) arthrogryposis in a Calf. Vet. World, 3(7): 335-336.
11. Kim, Y.H., Kweon, C.H., Tark, D.S., Lim, S.I., Yang, D.K., Hyun, B.H., Song, J.Y., Hur, W. and Park, S.C. (2011) Development of inactivated trivalent vaccine for the teratogenic Aino, Akabane and Chuzan viruses. Biologicals, 39: 152-157. [Crossref] [PubMed]
12. Huang, C.C., Huang, T.S, Deng, M.C., Jong, M.H. and Lin, S.Y. (2003) Natural infections of pigs with Akabane virus. Vet. Microbiol., 94(1): 1-11. [Crossref]
13. Eenennaam, A.V. (2009) Curly Calf Syndrome (Arthrogryposis multiples) Test. Available from: http://www.animalscience.ucdavis.edu/animalbiotech. Last accessed on 05-05-2017.
14. Carpenter, S., Groschup, M.H., Garros, C., Felippe-Baue, M.L. and Purse, B.V. (2013) Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe. Antiviral Res., 100(10): 102-113. [Crossref] [PubMed]
15. Yanase, T., Kato, T., Kubo, T., Yoshida, K., Ohashi, S., Yamakawa, M., Miura, Y. and Tsuda, T. (2005) Isolation of bovine arboviruses from Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern Japan: 1985-2002. J. Med. Entomol., 42: 63-67. [Crossref] [PubMed]
16. Weiss, D.J. and Wardrop, K.J. (2010) Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. 6th ed. Wiley Blackwell, Ames. p182.
17. McDonald, J.H. (2008) Handbook of Biological Statistics. Sparky House Publishing, Baltimore.
18. Hayama, Y., Moriguchi, S., Yanase, T., Ishikura, Y., Abe, S., Higashi, T., Ishikawa, H., Yamamoto, T., Kobayashi, S., Murai, K. and Tsutsui, T. (2016) Spatial epidemiological analysis of bovine encephalomyelitis outbreaks caused by Akabane virus infection in western Japan in 2011. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 48(4): 843-7. [Crossref] [PubMed]
19. Kirkland, P.D. (2002) Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract., 18(3): 501-14, viii-ix. [Crossref]
20. Kahrs, R.F. (2001) Akabane and bunya viruses causing bovine fetal wastage. Viral Diseases of Cattle. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. p257-261.
21. Kamata, H., Inai, K., Maeda, K., Nishimura, T., Arita, S., Tsuda, T. and Sato, M. (2009) Encephalomyelitis of cattle caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan in 2006. J. Comp. Pathol., 140(2-3): 187-193. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Kirklandm, P.D. (2015) Akabane virus infection. Rev. Sci. Tech., 34(2): 403-410. [Crossref]
23. Oem, J.K., Lee, K.H., Kim, H.R., Bae, Y.C., Chung, J.Y., Lee, O.S. and Roh, I.S. (2012) Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus infection in Korea. J. Comp. Pathol., 147(2-3): 101-105. [Crossref] [PubMed]
24. Brenner, J., Tsuda, T., Yadin, H. and Kato, T. (2001) Serological evidence of Akabane virus infection in northern Israel in 2001. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 66: 441-443. [Crossref]
25. Kittelberger, R., McFadden, A.M., Kirkland, P.D., Hannah, M.J., Orr, D., Bueno, R., Swainsbury, R., Keen, D., Jenner, J., French, J. and Pigott, C.J. (2013) Evaluation of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the detection of serum antibodies against Akabane virus in cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 25(5): 645-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. Liu, S., Ren, J., Xia, Q., Wu, X., Han, G., Ren, H., Yan, D., Wang, G., Gu, G. and Li, J. (2013) Preliminary case-control study to evaluate diagnostic values of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in differentiating active Crohn's disease from intestinal lymphoma, intestinal tuberculosis and behest's syndrome. Am. J. Med. Sci., 346(6): 467-472. [Crossref] [PubMed]
28. Eckersall, P.D. (2004) The time is right for acute phase protein assays. Vet. J., 168: 3-5. [Crossref]
29. Murata, H., Shimada, N. and Yoshioka, M. (2004) Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: An overview. Vet. J., 168: 28-40. [Crossref]30. Kravitz, M.S., Pitashny, M. and Shoenfeld, Y. (2005) Protective molecules C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), pentraxin3 (PTX3), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), and their autoantibodies: Prevalence and clinical significance in autoimmunity. J. Clin. Immunol., 25: 582-591. [Crossref]