Article history: Received: 21-09-2017, Accepted: 15-12-2017, Published online: 21-01-2018
Corresponding author: Isack Ibrahim Kerario
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Kerario II, Simuunza M, Laisser ELK, Chenyambuga S (2018) Exploring knowledge and management practices on ticks and tick-borne diseases among agro-pastoral communities in Southern highlands, Tanzania, Veterinary World, 11(1): 48-57.
Aim: The current study was conducted to assess the farmers' knowledge and management practices on ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) through individual interview using a structured questionnaire in Mbarali and Momba districts of Mbeya region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 240 households, 120 from each district were asked to mention TBDs of cattle which they thought were the most important in their localities and period of the year when the diseases occurred more frequently. In addition, farmers were asked to describe clinical signs and management practices associated with the common TBDs that they knew.
Results: The majority of respondents (46.2%) reported that East Coast fever (ECF) was the most important disease of cattle in the region, followed by anaplasmosis (33.8%), heartwater (15.4%), and babesiosis (4.6%). According to the farmers, ECF and anaplasmosis occurred more frequently during the dry season, while babesiosis and heartwater occurred more frequently during the rainy season. The majority of farmers were able to describe properly the signs of the common TBDs. Most farmers (80.4%) reported that they used acaricide to control ticks at a frequency of after every 2 weeks and a small proportion (15.8%) vaccinated their animals against ECF.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that farmers in Mbeya have considerable knowledge on tick species and clinical signs of TBDs affecting their cattle. Based on the findings of the current study, it is recommended that integrated approach to the control of ticks and TBDs be adopted in the study area and many other areas that utilize agro-pastoral and pastoral cattle production systems.
Keywords: acaricide, cattle, East Coast fever, indigenous knowledge.
1. MLFD, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. (2015) Budget Speed 2014/2015, Dodoma, Tanzania. Available from: http://www.mifugouvuvi.go.tz. Accessed on 03-06-2016.
2. Laisser, E.L.K., Chenyambuga, S.W., Karimuribo, E.D., Msalya, G., Kipanyula, M.J., Mwilawa, A.J., Mdegela, R.H. and Kusiluka, L.J.M. (2017) A review on prevalence, control measure, and tolerance of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle to East Coast fever in Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 49: 813-822. [Crossref] [PubMed]
3. Bock, R., Jackson, L., de Vos, A. and Jorgensen, W. (2004) Babesiosis of cattle. Parasitology, 129 Suppl: S247-S269. [Crossref]
4. Laisser, E.L.K., Kipanyula, M.J., Msalya, G., Mdegela, R.H., Karimuribo, E.D., Mwilawa, A.J., Mwega, E.D., Kusiluka, L.J.M. and Chenyambuga, S.W. (2014) Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the Lake zone of Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 46: 1391-1396. [Crossref] [PubMed]
5. Kerario, I.I., Muleya, W., Chenyambuga, S., Koski, M., Hwang, S.G. and Simuunza, M. (2017a) Abundance and distribution of Ixodid tick species infesting cattle reared under traditional farming systems in Tanzania. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 12: 286-299. [Crossref]
6. Kazungu, Y.E.M., Mwega, E., Neselle, M.O., Sallu, R., Kimera, S.I. and Gwakisa, P. (2015) Incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method induced immunity against T. parva in cattle under agro-pastoral systems in Northern Tanzania, Ticks. Tick Borne Dis., 6: 587-591. [Crossref]
7. Laisser, E.L.K., Chenyambuga, S.W., Karimuribo, E.D., Msalya, G., Kipanyula, M.J., Mwilawa, A.J., Mdegela, R.H., Kusiluka, L.J.M. and Gwakisa, P.S. (2016) Tick burden and acquisition of immunity to Theileria parva by Tarime cattle in comparison to Sukuma cattle under different tick control regimes in the Lake zone of Tanzania. J. Vet. Med. Health, 8: 21-28. [Crossref]
8. Swai, E.S., Mbise, A.N., Kessy, V., Kaaya, E., Sanka, P. and Loomu, P.M. (2005) Farm constraints, cattle disease perception and tick management practices in Pastoral Maasai community, Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 17(2): 1-11.
9. MRCO. (2012) Mbeya Regional Commissioner Office (MRCO). Annual Report.
10. URT. (2006) National Livestock Policy. Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, The United Republic of Tanzania. p43.
11. Mwambene, P.L., Chawala, A., Illatsia E., Das, S.M., Tungu. B. and Loina, R. (2014) Selecting indigenous cattle populations for improving dairy production in the Southern Highlands and Eastern Tanzania. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. J., 26: 27-44.
12. Chenyambuga, S.W., Waiswa, C., Saimo, M., Ngumi, P. and Gwakisa, P.S. (2010) Knowledge and perception of traditional livestock keepers on tick-borne disease and sero-prevalence of Theileria parva around lake Victoria Basin. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 22: 135.
13. Kivaria, F.M., Kapaga, A.M., Mbassa, G.K., Mtui, P.F. and Wani, R.J. (2012) Epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick borne diseases in South Sudan: Cross-sectional survey results. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 79: 10. [Crossref] [PubMed]
14. Laisser, E.L.K., Chenyambuga, S.W., Msalya, G., Kipanyula, M.J., Mdegela, R.H., Karimuribo, E.D., Mwilawa, A.J. and Kusiluka, L.J.M. (2015) Knowledge and perception on tick borne diseases and indigenous cattle tolerance to East Coast fever in agro-pastoral communities of Lake Zone in Tanzania. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 27: 65.
15. Nkonya, E., Penda, J., Jagger, P., Sserunkuuma, D., Kaizi, C. and Ssali, H. (2004) Strategies for Sustainable Land Management and Poverty Reduction in Uganda, Research Report, 133. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC. p36.
16. Mugisha, A., Mc Leod, A., Perry, R. and Kyewalabye, E. (2008) Socio-economic factors influencing control of vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist system of south western Uganda. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod., 40: 287-297. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. Kerario, I.I., Simuunza, M.C., Chenyambuga, S.W., Koski, M., Hwang, S.G. and Muleya, W. (2017b) Prevalence and Risk factors associated with Theileria parva infection in cattle in three regions of Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 49(8): 1613-1621. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. Walker, A.R., Bouattour, A., Camicas, J.J., Estrada-Pena, A., Horak, I.G., Latif, A.A., Pegram, R.G. and Preston, P.M. (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: A guide to identification of species. Bioscience Report, Edinburgh. p1-221.
19. Homewood, K., Pippa, T.P., Randall, S., Lynen, G. and Bishop, B. (2006) Livestock health and socio-economic impacts of a veterinary intervention in Maasai-Land: Infection and treatment vaccine against East Coast fever. Agric. Syst., 89: 248-271. [Crossref]
20. Catley, A. (2006) Use of participatory epidemiology to compare the clinical veterinary knowledge of pastoralists and veterinarians in East Africa. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod., 38: 171-184. [Crossref] [PubMed]
21. Gwamaka, M., Matovelo, J.A., Mtambo, M.M., Mbassa, G.K., Maselle, R.M. and Boniphace, S. (2004) The effect of dexamethasone and promethazine in combination with buparvaquone in the management of East Coast fever. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 71: 119-128. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Mbassa, G.K., Mgongo, F.O.K., Melau, L.S.B., Mlangwa, J.E.D., Silayo, R.S., Kimbita, E.N., Hayghaimo, A.A. and Mbiha, E.R. (2009) A financing system for the control of tick-borne diseases in pastoral herds: The Kambala (Tanzania) model. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 21(3): 44.23. Lynen, G., Bakuname, C. and Sanka, P. (1999) Ticks and Tick-borne Survey in the Northern Region of Tanzania. In: Proceedings of the 17th Scientific Conference of the Tanzania Vet. Association, Arusha, Tanzania. p24-31.