Open Access
Research (Published online: 25-09-2018)
20. First-time serological and molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in milk from Algerian local-breed cows
Meryem Guessoum, Zehor Guechi and Mounir Adnane
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1326-1330

Meryem Guessoum: Department of Pre-Clinical Medicine , High National Veterinary School, BP161 El-Harrach, Algiers, Algeria.
Zehor Guechi: Department of Microbiology , Central Laboratory of Clinical Biology, University Hospital Center of Nafisa Hamoud (Parnet), Hussein Dey, Algiers, Algeria.
Mounir Adnane: Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Tiaret, Algeria.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1326-1330

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 18-05-2018, Accepted: 13-08-2018, Published online: 25-09-2018

Corresponding author: Meryem Guessoum


Citation: Guessoum M, Guechi Z, Adnane M (2018) First-time serological and molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in milk from Algerian local-breed cows, Veterinary World, 11(9): 1326-1330.

Aim: The present study was conducted to detect and identify Helicobacter pylori within local cow breeds in the central region of Algeria.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred (n=200) cows from three provinces of the central region of Algeria were studied, between January 2016 and September 2017. Each cow was subject to stool, milk, and blood sampling. Milk and fecal samples were used to detect and identify H. pylori using bacteriology culture method. Blood and milk samples were used to detect H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the abundance of H. pylori in milk by detecting glmM gene.

Results: Out of 200 sera and 200 milk samples, 12% (24) and 4% (8/200) were positive for the H. pylori IgG antibody. glmM gene was detected in the milk of 13% of cows and was confirmed in all cows presenting IgG in milk.

Conclusion: From the present study, we concluded that the glmM gene is an important marker for detecting H. pylori in milk. Moreover, Algerian local-breed cows are a source of H. pylori and could be responsible for serious zoonosis.

Keywords: Algeria, cows, feces, Helicobacter pylori, milk, serum.


1. Correa, P. and Piazuelo, M.B. (2001) Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma. US Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Rev., 7(1): 59-64.

2. Garza-Gonzalez, E., Perez-Perez, G.I., Maldonado-Garza, H.J. and Bosques-Padilla, F.J. (2014) A review of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis, treatment, and methods to detect eradication. World J. Gastroenterol., 20(6): 1438-1449. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

3. Hooi, J.K.Y., Lai, W.Y., Ng, K.W., Suen, M.M.Y., Underwood, F.E., Tanyingoh, D., Malfertheiner, P., Graham, D.Y., Wong, V.W.S., Wu, J.C.Y., Chan, F.K.L., Sung, J.J.Y., Kaplan, G.G. and Siew, C.N.G. (2017) Global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology, 153(2): 420-429. [Crossref] [PubMed]

4. Ghoshal, U.C., Chaturvedi, R. and Correa, P. (2010) The enigma of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. Indian J. Gastroenterol., 29(3): 95-100. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

5. Gharavi, M.J., Ebadi, M., Fathi, H., Yazdanyar, Z., Valipor, N.S., Afrogh, P. and Kalantar, E. (2016) Trends in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Fardis, Iran, 2011-2014. Int. J. Enteric. Pathog., 4(1): 11-32860.

6. Khalifa, M.M., Sharaf, R.R. and Aziz, R.K. (2010) Helicobacter pylori: A poor man's gut pathogen? Gut Pathog., 2(1): 2. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

7. Drumm, B. and Rowland, M. (2011) Por que o Helicobacter pylori esta desaparecendo? Mais perguntas do que respostas. J. Pediatr., 87: 369-370.

8. Salih, B.A. (2009) Helicobacter pylori infection in developing countries: The burden for how long?. Saudi J. Gastroenterol., 15(3): 201-207. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

9. Adlekha, S., Chadha, T., Krishnan, P. and Sumangala, B. (2013) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a medical college hospital in Kerala, India. Ann. Med. Health Sci Res., 3(4): 559-563. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

10. Graham, D.Y. (2014) History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. World J. Gastroenterol., 20(18): 5191-5204. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

11. Testerman, T.L. and Morris, J. (2014) Beyond the stomach: An updated view of Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. World J. Gastroenterol., 20(36): 12781-12808. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

12. Payao, S.L. and Rasmussen, L.T. (2016) Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection. World J. Gastrointest. Pharmacol. Ther., 7(1): 126-132. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

13. Brown, L.M. (2000) Helicobacter pylori: Epidemiology and routes of transmission. Epidemiol. Rev., 22(2): 283-297. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Adler, I., Mui-o, A., Aguas, S., Harada, L., Diaz, M., Lence, A., Labbrozzi, M., Mui-o, J.M., Elsner, B., Avagnina, A. and Denninghoff, V. (2014) Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection. World J. Gastroenterol., 20(29): 9922-9935. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

15. Talaei, R., Souod, N., Momtaz, H. and Dabiri, H. (2015) Milk of livestock as a possible transmission route of Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Bed. Bench., 8 Suppl 1: S30-S36. [PubMed] [PMC]

16. Fox, J.G. and Wang, T.C. (2014) Dietary factors modulate Helicobacter-associated gastric cancer in rodent models. Toxicol. Pathol., 42(1): 162-181. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

17. Kolodzieyski, L., Kim, B., Park, H., Yoon, HS. and Lim, CW. (2008) Prevalence of gastrospirillum-like organisms in pigs, cattle, and dogs: a comparison of diagnostic methods between species. Vet. Med., 53: 193-202. [Crossref]

18. Quaglia, N.C, Dambrosio, A., Normanno, G., Parisi, A., Patrono, R., Ranieri, G., Rella, A. and Celano, G.V. (2008) High occurrence of Helicobacter pylori in raw goat, sheep and cow milk inferred by glmM gene: A risk of food-borne infection? Int. J. Food Microbiol., 124(1): 43-47. [Crossref] [PubMed]

19. Raaf, N., Amhis, W., Saoula, H., Abid, A., Nakmouche, M., Balamane, A., Arous, N.A., Ouar-Korichi, M., Vale, F.F., Benejat, L. and Megraud, F. (2017) Prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and MLST typing of Helicobacter pylori in Algiers, Algeria. Helicobacter, 22(6): e12446. [Crossref] [PubMed]

20. Rahimi, E. and Kheirabadi, E.K. (2012) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran. Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 9(5): 453-456. [Crossref] [PubMed]

21. Mitchell, H.M., Bohane, T.D., Berkowicz, J., Hazell, S.L. and Lee, A. (1987) Antibody to Campylobacter pylori in families of index children with gastrointestinal illness due to C pylori. Lancet, 2(8560): 681-682. [Crossref]

22. Megraud, F. and Lehours, P. (2007) Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 20(2): 280-322. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

23. Dent, J.C. and McNulty, C.A. (1988) Evaluation of a new selective medium for Campylobacter pylori. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 7(4): 555-558. [Crossref] [PubMed]

24. Espinoza, M.G., Vazquez, R.G., Mendez, I.M., Vargas, C.R. and Cerezo, S.G. (2011) Detection of the glmM gene in Helicobacter pylori isolates with a novel primer by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49(4): 1650-1652. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

25. Bewley, J.M., Harmon, R.J., Locke, S. and Arnold, M. (2014) Collection and preparation of milk samples for microbiological culturing. Agric. Natl. Resour. Publ., 164.

26. Safaei, H.G., Rahimi, E., Zandi, A. and Rashidipour, A. (2011) Helicobacter pylori as a zoonotic infection: The detection of H. pylori antigens in the milk and faeces of cows. J. Res. Med. Sci., 16(2): 184-187. [PubMed] [PMC]

27. Goh, K.L., Wah-Kheong, C., Shiota, S. and Yamaoka, Y. (2011) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and public health implications. Helicobacter, 16 Suppl 1: 1-9. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

28. Vouga, M. and Greub, G. (2016) Emerging bacterial pathogens: The past and beyond. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 22(1): 12-21. [Crossref] [PubMed]

29. Mladenova-Hristova, I., Grekova, O. and Patel, A. (2017) Zoonotic potential of Helicobacter spp. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect., 50(3): 265-269. [Crossref] [PubMed]

30. Blaser, M.J. and Berg, D.E. (2001) Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and risk of human disease. J. Clin. Invest., 107(7): 767-773. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

31. Kanae, S.Y.T. (2009) Helicobacter pylori in the Natural Environment. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 31(3): 275-279.

32. De Reuse, H., Labigne, A. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (1997) The Helicobacter pylori ureC gene codes for a phosphoglucosamine mutase. J. Bacteriol., 179(11): 3488-3493. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

33. Tabatabaei, M. (2012) Application of molecular and cultural methods for identification of Helicobacter spp. In different animal sources. Glob. Vet., 8(3): 292-297.

34. Azevedo, N.F., Almeida, C., Cerqueira, L., Dias, S., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007) Coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori as a morphological manifestation of cell adaptation to the environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73(10): 3423-3427. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

35. Allahverdiyev, A.M., Bagirova, M., Caliskan, R., Tokman, H.B., Aliyeva, H., Unal, G., Oztel, O.N., Abamor, E.S., Toptas, H., Yuksel, P., Kalayci, F., Aslan, M., Erzin, Y., Bal, K. and Kocazeybek, B.S. (2015) Isolation and diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by a new method: Microcapillary culture. World J. Gastroenterol., 21(9): 2622-2628. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

36. Momtaz, H., Dabiri, H., Souod, N. and Gholami, M. (2014) Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings. BMC Gastroenterol., 14: 61. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

37. Elhariri, M., Elhelw, R., Hamza, D. and Sayed, H. (2017) Serologic evidence and risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in animals and humans. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries., 11(5): 414-419. [Crossref]

38. El-Gohary, A.H., Yousef, M.A. and Mohamed, A.A. (2015) Epidemiological study on H. pylori in cattle and its milk with special reference to its zoonotic importance. BLM., 7(5): 251.

39. Osman, E.Y., El-Eragi, A.M.S., Musa, A.M., El-Magboul, S.B., A/Rahman M.B. and Abdo, A.E. (2015) Detection of Helicobacter pylori glmM gene in bovine milk using nested polymerase chain reaction. Vet. World, 8(7): 913-917. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

40. Fujimura, S., Kawamura, T., Kato, S., Tateno, H. and Watanabe, A. (2002) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in cow's milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 35(6): 504-507. [Crossref] [PubMed]

41. Bertoni, G., Minuti, A. and Trevisi, E. (2015) Immune system, inflammation and nutrition in dairy cattle. Anim. Prod., 55(7): 943. [Crossref]